Now showing items 1-19 of 19

    • Book

      An assessment of the coastal resources of Ibajay and Tangalan, Aklan: Implications for management 

      LMB Garcia (Ed.) - 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This report describes the present state of marine resources in several coastal barangays of Ibajay and Tangalan, Aklan (Philippines). Field data were obtained from rapid surveys conducted from July to September 1998. Recommendations based on analyses of the data will guide fisherfolk and other stakeholders, particularly the local government units, in their development plans for these neighboring municipalities. Both land and marine products in the area are mainly harvested for the local market. All coastal barangays are dependent on fishing for their livelihood. The medium-scale municipal fishery of Tangalan employs several passive (encircling gill net, bag net, fish corral) and active gears (baby purse seine) compared with the traditional fishing methods employed by Ibajay fishers. Pond aquaculture in mangrove areas is well-developed in Ibajay West (barangays Aquino and Ondoy) and in Tangalan. However, ownership of these ponds is limited to a few individuals and families, unlike in Barangay Bugtong Bato where informal ownership distributed among families has been the traditional rule. Nonetheless, the introduction of so-called environment-friendly methods of utilizing mangroves (e.g., aquasilviculture) and other shared coastal resources may seriously undermine the informal rights-based social structures in the barangays. Without proper rules and enforcement, the application of these methods may be misused, aggravating the already poor overall state of their coastal resources. Major problems affecting their fishing livelihood include siltation of nearshore waters due to illegal deforestation upland, encroachment of municipal fishing grounds by commercial and other fishers elsewhere, and the lack of capital to finance the fishery. Weak inter-organizational links among government and non-government organizations have hampered the implementation of solutions to these common problems in coastal barangays. For instance, a conflict between fishers from these neighboring municipalities over territorial boundaries of common fishing grounds in Pangayawan and Pungtod reefs has not been resolved over the years. Likewise, the introduction of aquasilviculture in mangrove areas may become a potent source of conflict among resource-users who maintain informal rights over the mangrove resource. The overall state of coastal resources in these municipalities is in immediate need of a unified plan to promote both their preservation and conservation. To achieve this end, a joint resource management council representing all resource-users from both municipalities must be organized and convened. To address the presently weak inter-organizational links among existing organizations, this joint council may provide a legitimate forum to identify, resolve, integrate, implement, and enforce guidelines on the common use of resources, both marine and inland. Low estimated yields from the reef fishery, conversion of mangroves for aquaculture beyond the allowable limit, a persistent conflict over fishing rights in several reefs offshore, the limited resources for seaweed and fish mariculture, and threats on existing traditional social structures by progressive resource-users are several issues that require thorough discussions to formulate popularly approved and acceptable management strategies. These strategies include community-based approaches of co-managing resources such as "no-take zones" (sanctuaries), ecotourism development, and livelihood schemes to mitigate, in part, the pressure of over-exploitation of fishery resources.
    • Book

      Biology and hatchery of mangrove crabs Scylla spp. 

      ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & JJ dela Cruz-Huervana - 2018 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 34
      This manual includes the biology of crab (Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica, and S. olivacea), and describes principles and procedures for spawning the mature crabs and rearing the zoea to ‘fly’ size crabs. It focuses on the hatchery rearing of S. serrata as the farming of this species is more economically viable than the two other species. The techniques may be modified depending on the conditions or problems encountered in a specific site.
    • Book

      Biology and hatchery of mud crabs Scylla spp. 

      ET Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - 2008 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 34
      This manual includes the biology of mud crab, and describes principles and procedures for spawning the mature crabs (Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica, and S. olivacea) and rearing the zoea to fly size crabs. It focuses on the hatchery rearing of S. serrata as this species is more economically viable than the two other species. The techniques may be modified depending on the conditions or problems encountered in a specific site.
    • Book

      Diseases of juvenile and adult mud crab Scylla spp. in the Philippines 

      EA Tendencia, MVC Cabilitasan & E Tobias-Quinitio - 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 64
      This manual aims to provide updated information on the diseases of mud crabs initially authored by Lavilla-Pitogo and dela Peña (2004). It includes the name of the disease, causative agent, stages affected, effects on mud crab and methods of prevention and control. Except for the infectious diseases caused by viruses, which can be detected through molecular methods, most of the diseases can be visually diagnosed. Photographs of the external and internal anatomy of a normal mud crab, including the different sexes and species are included to help readers differentiate a normal from a diseased mud crab.
    • Book

      The farming of the seaweed Kappaphycus 

      AQ Hurtado & RF Agbayani - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 32
      A 24-page manual that introduces the carrageenan-producing seaweed Kappaphycus whose culture has spread from Jolo in Mindanao to at least 14 sites in the Visayas and Luzon. Four culture methods are presented: fixed off-bottom, raft long-line (single or multiple), hanging long line, and polyculture of seaweeds with carnivorous fishes.
    • Book

      Fingerling production of hatchery-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos) in earthen nursery ponds 

      EB Coniza, CL Marte, RM Coloso & FL Huervana - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual No. 45
      Fingerling production of milkfish in ponds maybe operated as a commercial enterprise or a component of milkfish farming that comprises nursery, transition and rearing or grow-out phases. The fishpond nursery is used to grow milkfish fry to fingerlings 1-3 g in weight or 1-2 inches in length. The nursery pond is the smallest of the major fishpond compartment ranging from 500 to 5,000 m2, and is about 10% of the total farming area. The pond is prepared with utmost care to eliminate predators and competitors. The area should have good topography, is free from flooding and should have soil with good water retention properties for good dike construction and efficient culture management. Water supply should be adequate year-round and free from pollutants. Good pond water quality is maintained and natural food should be adequate to enhance growth and survival. With high stocking densities, supplemental feed is also provided. The three types of nurseries are based on feed sources: lablab, plankton with supplemental feeding and direct feeding. Select hatchery-reared fry (21 day old) that swim actively in schools, are uniform in size, have robust body, and are resistant to handling and transport stress. The ideal fry stocking density is 5-40 pieces/m2. Survival ranging from 50-90% can be expected after 25-45 days of rearing. Harvest, packing, transport, acclimation and stocking of the fry or fingerlings are carefully done during the cooler part of the day. Economic indicators show that fingerlings production is a profitable business. The improvement of milkfish grow-out technology from extensive or traditional to modified-extensive, semi-intensive and intensive culture in ponds, pens or in sea cages has increased demand for good quality fingerlings. Mass production of hatchery-reared fingerlings in earthen nursery ponds during peak season of fry availability can help bridge the supply gap. A steady supply of fingerlings for a whole year s operation will further increase production and ensure a sustainable supply of affordable market-sized fish.
    • Book

      Grow-out culture of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus Forsskal, 1775) in ponds 

      EB Coniza, MR Catacutan & PA Caballero - 2012 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 53
      The mangrove red snapper is among the high-value marine fishes with great potential for export. Snapper is important to coastal fishery and ideal for aquaculture particularly in Southeast Asia. Grow-out culture of snapper are described - pond culture and culture in cages inside the ponds. In the pond culture, the whole area can be maximized and the available natural food can be utilized by snapper. In rearing snapper in cages inside the pond, fish sampling and harvesting are easily done and also in preventing of disease infection and securing of fish stocks during flooding. In both culture methods a good site would have a mangrove buffer space about 20-100 m that lies between the ponds and the source of water like river or sea. Pond soil with a good water retention property is desirable for dike construction. Water supply should be adequate year-round, free from pollutants and run-off flooding. Pond supplies, labor and technology should be available on the selected site which is also accessible to markets with peaceful locale. The pond for growing snapper should be prepared well in order to promote good growth of fish, to minimize pollution, and prevents the proliferation of pathogens. Stocking of healthy and larger uniform size juveniles will mean higher survival, faster growth and shorter culture period. Proper handling of juveniles during harvest, size-grading, counting, packing, transport, acclimation and stocking should be observed and should be done during the cooler part of the day. Recommended juveniles for grow-out is about 20-100 g average body weight (ABW) and stocking densities of 5,000/ha in ponds, and at 5 pcs/m3 or 5,000 pcs/ha when stocked in cages inside the pond. During culture, good water quality is maintained and when necessary the cleaning of net cages, repair of dike leaks and seepages, and aeration are to be considered. Snapper dietary protein is about 48-50%. The following are the factors to consider in the feeding management of snapper: total stock (pcs), survival (%), ABW (g), feed rate (% biomass), feed type, feed size, feeding frequency and time. Economic analysis based on 0.422 ha pond shows that feeds accounted for 60-67% and juveniles contribute 23-25% of the variable cost. The feed conversion ratios, return on investments, payback period and discounted benefit-cost ratios are 2.5 and 2.6; 203 and 43%; 0.46 and 1.76 yr; 1.4 and 1.2 for culture of snapper in pond and culture in cages inside the pond, respectively, are likewise acceptable.
    • Book

      Grow-out culture of the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther) 

      EB Coniza, MR Catacutan & JD Tan-Fermin - 2008 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 41
      Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus is an esteemed food fish especially in Southeast Asia due to its tender and delicious meat. This commodity constitutes a valuable fishery for small-scale fishers in the region and has a great potential for aquaculture. The important considerations in the grow-out culture of catfish are reliable water supply, soil with good compaction properties for dike construction, supply of fingerlings, feeds, labor, pond supplies and technology assistance. The farm must also be accessible by road, near to market facilities and has a peaceful environment. Rearing catfish in ponds is the most popular and commonly practiced. The pen culture is a system fully enclosed by nets on all sides but utilizes the dug-out pond, dam or lake bed as bottom enclosure. Tanks in abandoned old hatcheries with freshwater source can be used for catfish culture. In the cage culture system the stock is fully enclosed by nylon nets on all sides and bottom similar to an inverted mosquito net installed in suitable areas like reservoirs, dams, lakes and dug-out ponds. The rice-fish (catfish) culture is also practiced where the rice pond canals are utilized to retain water at 1-2 m depth to provide shelter to the fish while the rice plot maintains 10-20 cm water depth. For the stock, select fingerlings that are active, healthy and uniform in size. Handling of fish stock is important to avoid mortality due to stress during harvest, sorting, counting and transport. Furthermore, stocking of fish is recommended during the cooler part of the day. Catfish fingerlings stocking density is about 5 to 20 pcs/m2 depending on the water supply and support facilities of the farm. The catfish, C. macrocephalus, requires a substantial amount of dietary protein for growth. For this species a formulated diet with crude protein (CP) of 34%, moist diet (trash fish or blanched chicken entrails plus rice bran or cooked broken rice), and a combination of pellet feeds (50%) and moist diet (50%) have been tested and acceptable for the grow-out culture. Economic evaluation based on a grow-out culture in pond with an area of 1,000 m2 showed that feeds and fingerlings are the major variable costs. The net income, return on investments and payback period, respectively range from PhP22,972-PhP35,741, 80-122% and 0.8-1.2 years when using pellet, moist feed or a combination of these feeds. Feeding using formulated diet has an advantage of convenience, quality and quantity over moist diet which has issues such as inconsistent supply, storage requirement and fouling the rearing water.
    • Book

      Handbook of mangroves in the Philippines - Panay 

      JH Primavera, RB Sadaba, MJHL Lebata & JP Altamirano - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A 106-page guide is a user-friendly presentation of technical botanical description and illustrations of Philippine mangrove species in Panay Island, Guimaras and Aurora Province. Vegetative and reproductive structures of 34 mangrove species that are readily observed in the field are emphasized and presented in color photographs and as graphic icons. Also discussed: importance of mangroves; mangrove decline and legislation; conservation and rehabilitation; and mangrove-friendly aquaculture.
    • Book

      Hatchery production of snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii Lacepede 

      OS Reyes, EGT de Jesus-Ayson, FL Pedroso & MIC Cabanilla - 2014 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 56
      A 26-page extension manual describing the biology, broodstock acquisition & management, larval rearing, harvest & transport and prevention of diseases & parasites in hatchery production of pompano.
    • Book

      Health management of milkfish Chanos chanos 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda, EG Estante, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & VL Corre Jr. - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This monograph provides updated information on diseases of marine and brackishwater cultured milkfish in the Philippines. The information presented here is largely based on the results of a three-year research project on milkfish at the University of the Philippines Visayas funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The project involved surveillance and monitoring of hatchery, nursery and grow-out operations for occurrence of diseases as well as on disease diagnosis, prevention and control. Previously documented reports in the Philippines and in other documents, both published and unpublished, are also included in this monograph. The diseases are discussed on a culture phase basis, that is, disease problems encountered in hatchery-reared larvae and fry are listed first, followed by diseases observed in fingerlings and juveniles grown in nursery and grow-out culture areas, and adult stages maintained in broodstock facilities. Information regarding the causative agent, diagnostic procedures, and methods of prevention and control for each disease are provided, if available.
    • Book

      Intensive culture of milkfish Chanos chanos in polyculture with white shrimp Penaeus indicus or mud crab Scylla serrata in brackishwater earthen ponds 

      GS Jamerlan, RM Coloso & NV Golez - 2014 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 57
      A 30-page extension manual describing the biology, site selection, pond management and harvest & post-harvest of milkfish intensive polyculture in earthen pond.
    • Book

      Intensive culture of sea bass, Lates calcarifer Bloch, in brackishwater earthen ponds 

      GS Jamerlan & RM Coloso - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 46
      An extension manual describing criteria for site selection, monoculture and polyculture operations including feeds and feeding, harvest, common diseases, economic analysis.
    • Book

      The Malalison experience: empowering an island community in west central Philippines 

      RF Agbayani, CL Marte, DB Baticados, EC Amar & MT Castaños - 2009 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A 64-page booklet that describes SEAFDEC/AQD’s community fishery resources management project from 1991 to 1998 with a post project assessment in 2009.
    • Book

      Nutrition in tropical aquaculture : essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species 

      OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.) - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This book is intended to teach undergraduate students the essentials of aquaculture nutrition, feed formulation, and feeding management. It serves as a reference book for researchers in aquaculture, aquaculturists, fish farmers, and aquaculture nutritionists. For the basic understanding of the materials presented, it is essential that the students, teachers, and researchers have a good background in chemistry, fish biology, or fisheries. The book covers the subject areas of known nutrient requirements, effects of nutrient deficiencies on various aquatic species, nutrient sources, digestibility, and digestive physiology. Feed formulation, processing and storage, evaluation and quality control, feeding management, as well as the economics of feeding are included. Aspects on feeds and feeding related to the conservation of the aquatic environment are also dealt with.

      Each chapter of this book has common features such as an introduction, basic concepts, and a summary. Both the basic and practical aspects of fish nutrition are included to give the students and allow the readers who are unfamiliar with the topics a clear understanding and knowledge of these concepts. Study questions at the end of each chapter serve as a guide to summarize and impress on the students the salient points of the subject matter in each chapter. To easily comprehend the subject matter, there is an appendix containing the analytical methods and a glossary of technical terms. The users particularly the students are encouraged to broaden their knowledge by referring to the list of references and suggested readings at the end of each chapter.
    • Book

      Seed production of milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskal 

      O Reyes, B Eullaran & EG Ayson - 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 63
      A 26-page manual describing the site selection, hatchery design, spawning, larval rearing, natural food production, and economic analysis for milkfish.
    • Book | Conference publication

      Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020 

      BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.) - 2011 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This publication represents the proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation (RTC) on Aquaculture held in Bangkok, Thailand last 17-19 March 2010. The RTC was convened by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD) as part of the preparatory undertakings for the ASEAN-SEAFDEC Conference on Fisheries held in June 2011. The main objectives of the RTC were to follow-up the developments of aquaculture in Southeast Asia after the 2001 ASEAN-SEAFDEC Millennium Conference on Fisheries and to define the strategic actions for the region s sustainable aquaculture development in the next decade. These proceedings contain 10 country papers and a summary status of implementation of the Resolution and Plan of Actions on six themes (supply of good quality seeds, environment-friendly aquaculture, getting out of the fish meal trap, healthy and wholesome aquaculture, biotechnology and rural aquaculture) which are the outcomes of the 2001 ASEAN-SEAFDEC Millennium Conference on Fisheries. It also presents the thematic papers and a synopsis of discussions on issues and recommendations on four thematic areas: (i) meeting social and economic challenges in aquaculture; (ii) quality seed production for sustainable aquaculture; (iii) healthy and wholesome aquaculture; and (iv) protecting the environment and adapting to climate change. These recommendations are expected to provide baseline information and directions in formulating the Resolution and Plan of Action (aquaculture component) for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020.
    • Book

      Tilapia farming in cages and ponds 

      RV Eguia & MRR Romana-Eguia - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 36
      This 40-page manual describes the farming practices for tilapia in cages, pens, ponds, and tanks. Also details selection of quality seedstock, maintenance of stock (feeding, water management), and harvesting. A list of institutions working on tilapia R&D is included.
    • Book

      Training handbook on rural aquaculture 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - 2009 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This handbook covers four important factors in undertaking sustainable aquaculture livelihood namely: (1) aquatic resources and environment; (2) socioeconomic attributes of fishing communities; (3) appropriate and economically feasible aquaculture technologies; and, (4) policy issues and institutional arrangements related to a balanced fishery management and aquaculture livelihood. The long-term outcomes of these strategies shall be measured in terms of environmental sustainability, economic uplift of the community, and equitable distribution of benefits among different sectors of the community.