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    • Article

      Acute toxicity of nitrite to mud crab Scylla serrata (Forsskål) larvae 

      ML Seneriches-Abiera, F Parado-Estepa & GA Gonzales - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      Early larval stages of mud crab Scylla serrata were exposed to different concentrations of nitrite (40, 80 and 160 mg L−1 and a control, without added nitrite) and three salinity levels (25, 30 and 35 g L−1) using a static renewal method. No interactive effect of nitrite and salinity was detected. Estimated LT50 in 96-h toxicity tests decreased in all stages with increasing nitrite concentrations in all salinity levels. The 96-h LC50 values of nitrite-N were 41.58, 63.04, 25.54, 29.98 and 69.93 mg L−1 for zoea 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. As the larvae grew, they showed a progressive increase in tolerance to nitrite. The toxicity of nitrite to larvae increased with exposure time. The median lethal concentration was not affected by salinity. The chloride component of salinity within 25–35 g L−1 did not seem to be as effective in alleviating toxicity as has been reported in other crustacean species. Based on 96-h LC50 and an application factor of 0.1, the ‘safe level’ of rearing mud crab larvae was calculated to be 4.16, 6.30, 2.55, 2.99 and 6.99 mg L−1 nitrite-N for zoea 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively.
    • Article

      The effects of different stocking densities and some abiotic factors on cage culture of Gracilaria sp. (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) 

      NG Guanzon Jr. & TR de Castro - Botanica Marina, 1992 - Walter de Gruyter
      Specific growth rates (% day-1) and production rates (g m-2 day-1) of Gracilaria sp. reared in net cages on a bamboo floating raft from March 1989 to February 1990 were determined at different stocking densities (200, 250, 300 and 350 g 0.5 m-2/net cage). Mean specific growth rates for the whole culture period were highest at stocking densities of 200 and 250 g 0.5 m-2 (P < 0.05). Highest mean net production rate was obtained at a stocking of 250 g 0.5 m-2, but was not significantly different from stocking densities of 300 and 350 g 0.5 m2 (P < 0.05). Highest monthly mean specific growth rates and monthly mean net production rates for all treatments were obtained during March and November 1989 and February 1990. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in monthly mean specific growth rates and mean net production rates between the three peak months, although they were significantly different from the rest of the months (P < 0.05). Production was higher during the dry season. Correlation analysis showed that total rainfall was negatively correlated with specific growth rate and production rate. Salinity, temperature and pH were not correlated with specific growth rate and production rate.