Now showing items 1-20 of 24

    • Article

      Advanced broodstock diets for the mangrove red snapper and a potential importance of arachidonic acid in eggs and fry 

      AC Emata, HY Ogata, ES Garibay & H Furuita - Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 2003 - Springer Verlag
      Mangrove red snapper fed advanced broodstock diets containing squid meal and squid oil exhibited higher hatching rates, cumulative survival and survival activity index than those fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with mixture of antioxidants. On the other hand, fatty acid analyses of ovaries and fry of wild fish and eggs and larvae of broodstock fed raw fish revealed high arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and relatively lower eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels consequently showing high ARA/EPA and DHA/EPA ratios compared to cold water species. This suggests that ARA may be nutritionally more important for egg and larval development and survival in tropical marine fish and its supplementation in broodstock diets may enhance reproductive performance of mangrove red snapper.
    • Article

      Butylated hydroxytoluene: its effect on the quality of shrimp diet stored at various temperatures and on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon juveniles 

      MN Bautista-Teruel & PF Subosa - Aquaculture, 1999 - Elsevier
      Shrimp diets with and without the antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were stored at 10°, 20°, 28°–30°, and 40°C for 10 weeks. To monitor lipolysis and lipid oxidation, free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide values (PVs), and malonaldehyde (MAL) levels were measured from the extracted lipids of the stored diets. Fatty acid levels of the diets increased between the initial and final samplings and the increase was higher (8.4%) in diets without BHT stored at 40°C after 10 weeks. Peroxide values of the extracted lipids were low and fluctuated monthly between 2.2 and 7.4 mmol/kg fat. MAL levels increased in diets with and without BHT except those stored at 10°C for 4 weeks. Diets with BHT stored at 10°C had the lowest (8.7 mg MAL/kg fat) MAL levels and diets without BHT stored at 40°C for 10 weeks had the highest (16.9 mg MAL/kg fat). Shrimp fed diets with BHT gained 5.7–6.4× their initial weight after 10 weeks of rearing. Their growth was significantly better than those fed diets without BHT (4–6×) during the 60-day culture period. Survival was significantly higher in those fed diets with BHT (87–88%) than those without BHT (75–85%). No hepatopancreatic lesions were seen in shrimp samples fed diets with and without BHT and stored at various temperatures. The incorporation of BHT in shrimp feed is necessary if the feed is to be stored at 40°C for 10 weeks.
    • Article

      Cell growth and nutritive value of the tropical benthic diatom, Amphora sp., at varying levels of nutrients and light intensity, and different culture locations 

      MR de la Peña - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2007 - Springer Verlag
      Two series of experiments were conducted to determine suitable growth factors for the mass propagation of the local algal isolate Amphora sp. A higher growth rate of 0.2 doubling (μ) day-1 was attained at a lower photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD; 11.4 μmol photon m-2s-1) compared to cultures exposed to higher levels of PPFD (16.1 μmol photon m-2s-1, −0.1 μ day -1; 31.3 μmol photon m-2s-1, 0.0 μ day-1). Cultures located inside the laboratory had a significantly higher cell density (133 × 104 cells cm-2) and growth rate (0.3 μ day−1) compared to those located outdoors (100 × 104 cells cm-2, 0.2 μ day-1). A comparison of nutrient medium across two locations showed that lipid content was significantly higher in cultures enriched with F/2MTM (macronutrients + trace metals) and F/2MV (macronutrients + vitamins). Saturated fatty acids were also present in high concentrations in cultures enriched with F/2M (macronutrients only). Significantly higher amounts of saturated fatty acids were observed in cultures located outdoors (33.1%) compared to those located indoors (26.6%). The protein, carbohydrates and n-6 fatty acid content of Amphora sp. were influenced by the location and enrichment of the cultures. This study has identified growth conditions for mass culture of Amphora sp. and determined biochemical composition under those culture conditions.
    • Article

      Effect of dietary fatty acids on growth of milkfish Chanos chanos fry in brackish water 

      VR Alava & A Kanazawa - Aquaculture, 1996 - Elsevier
      Five purified microbound diets containing 1% of 18:2n − 6, 18:3n − 3, 20:4n − 6, or n − 3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA: 60% 20:5n − 3 + 40% 22:6n − 3) in addition to 8% 18:1n − 9, and a control diet containing 9% 18:1n − 9 were fed to milkfish fry or late postlarvae for 30 days (Trial 1) and 35 days (Trial 2). The salinity was 16–17‰ and temperature was 27 ± 1 °C during the culture periods. A completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment per trial was followed. In each trial, 60 fish (5mg, 6mm) were stocked per 301 oval plastic tank and fed the experimental diets at 20% of biomass per day.

      Survival of 100% observed for all groups in both trials demonstrated that the milkfish fry reared in brackish water utilized the test diets. Specific growth rates did not differ significantly among treatments (P 0.05), with values of 9.5–9.9% and 10.0–10.3% in Trials 1 and 2, respectively. Weight, length and feed conversion ratio of milkfish fry fed the various diets also did not differ significantly (P 0.05). Although not significantly differentiated in Trial 1 (P 0.05), incidence of eye abnormality was highest in milkfish fry fed the 18:1n − 9 diet in Trial 2 (P 0.05).
    • Article

      Effect of fatty acid composition of broodstock diet on tissue fatty acid patterns and egg fertilization and hatching in pond-reared Penaeus monodon 

      OM Millamena - Asian Fisheries Science, 1989 - Asian Fisheries Society
      The effect of dietary fatty acid composition on tissue fatty acid patterns and Penaeus monodon was evaluated with the use of 3 practical diets. Diets were formulated to contain the same basal components but with various lipid supplementation: Diet B1, 6% cod liver oil; Diet B2, 3% cod liver oil and 3% soybean lecithin; and Diet B3, 6% soybean lecithin.

      Three flow-through maturation tanks were each stocked with 50 broodstock at a sex ratio of 1.5 female to 1 male, with the females ablated on one eyestalk. Broodstock performance measured as total number and nature of spawnings, egg fertility and average hatching rate of eggs of each dietary treatment was assessed.

      Results showed that the fatty acid composition of broodstock diet affected the tissue fatty acid patterns and hatchability of eggs from pond-reared P. monodon . Females fed a diet high in 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio gave higher percentages of fertilized eggs and higher hatching rates than did other diets.
    • Article

      Enrichment potential of HUFA-rich thraustochytrid Schizochytrium mangrovei for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis 

      C Estudillo-del Castillo, RS Gapasin & EM Leaño - Aquaculture, 2009 - Elsevier
      An enrichment experiment was performed to evaluate the changes in lipid and essential fatty acid contents of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis fed with freeze-dried cells of tropical thraustochytrid Schizochytrium mangrovei (Isolate IAo-1). Rotifers starved for 24 h were fed with S. mangrovei cells at 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mg L−1. Enrichment was carried out at two periods (Short-term = 5 h; Long-term = 10 h) to determine the optimum time needed for the maximum enrichment of the rotifers. There was an overall significant increase in the total lipid, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents of rotifers after feeding with freeze-dried S. mangrovei indicating the successful uptake of these nutrients in the rotifer's biochemical composition. On the other hand, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) did not change significantly in enriched rotifers. Results of the present study indicate that both factors, feeding concentrations and enrichment periods, significantly affected the lipid, AA and DHA contents of rotifers. Uptakes of lipid, AA and DHA significantly increased with increasing feeding concentrations except for those fed the highest feeding concentration of 700 mg L−1 for 10 h. Moreover, lipid and AA contents of enriched rotifers were significantly higher during the short-term enrichment period while DHA contents were significantly higher during the long-term enrichment period. Therefore, it is concluded that the feeding concentration of 700 mg L−1 at an enrichment period of 5 h is optimum in the AA and DHA enrichment of rotifers. The strategic scheme of combining the proper amount of enrichment product and the duration of enrichment in boosting the DHA contents of rotifers will effectively ensure a reliable production of nutritionally superior rotifers at a minimal cost. This will ultimately contribute to the success of rearing marine fish larvae in the hatchery.
    • Article

      The essential fatty acid requirement of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) 

      IG Borlongan - Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 1992 - Springer Verlag
      The essential fatty acid (EFA) requirement of milkfish was examined by a 12-week feeding trial using defined, purified diets at water temperature of 28–29°C and salinity of 32‰. The test diets contained varying levels of 18:0 (triglyceride form, TG), 18:3(n−3), 18:2(n−6) and (n−3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (n−3 HUFA). Milkfish juveniles were starved for 7 days and were than fed lipid-free diet for 30 days before the initiation of feeding trials. Low growth and feed efficiency together with high mortalities were observed in fish fed the lipid-free diet as well as in the EFA-deficient diet. Supplementation of 2% 18:2(n−6) to the tristearin based diet did not improve growth rate of milkfish as effectively as feeding with (n−3) fatty acids. The highest weight gain was obtained in milkfish fed a combination of 5% 18:0 + 1.0% 18:3(n−3) + 0.5% 20:5(n−3) + 0.5% 22:6(n−3) although the supplementation of 2% 18:3(n−3) alone or combination of 0.5% 20:5(n−3) + 0.5% 22:6(n−3) to the tristearin based diets were also effective for improvement of growth. Thus, (n−3) fatty acids, such as 18:3(n−3) and (n−3)HUFA were nutritionally more important than 18:2(n−6) for milkfish. The fatty acid composition of the polar lipids from whole body of milkfish juveniles fed the various test diets were influenced by the composition of the dietary fatty acids.
    • Article

      Evaluation of dietary freeze-dried Chaetoceros calcitrans supplementation to control Vibrio harveyi infection on Penaeus monodon juvenile 

      EB Seraspe, S Gabotero, MR de la Peña, IG Pahila & EC Amar - Aquaculture, 2014 - Elsevier
      Effects of supplementation of diets with freeze-dried Chaetoceros calcitrans to control Vibrio harveyi infection are evaluated through immune responses, and disease resistance of juvenile Penaeus monodon. Total lipid and fatty acid profile of Chaetoceros calcitrans is also analyzed. A challenge infection with 107 cfu/mL concentration of Vibrio harveyi is intramuscularly injected to juvenile Penaeus monodon after 45 days of feeding of diets supplemented with 15 g/kg and 30 g/kg dried Chaetoceros calcitrans. The use of dried Chaetoceros calcitrans is compared with that of ß-1,3 glucan Curdlan, a commercial immune enhancer. Incorporation of 30 g/kg Chaetoceros calcitrans in the diet enhances the immune system of shrimp as effected by high prophenoloxidase activity and plasma protein concentration and is better compared to the commercially available Curdlan. Chaetoceros calcitrans also contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as linolenic acid and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) which are responsible for its antibacterial action against Vibrio harveyi. All these biological activities of Chaetoceros calcitrans add up to increase resistance of the juvenile Penaeus monodon to vibriosis as shown by its high survival rate from the challenge infection with Vibrio harveyi. Therefore, it is worthwhile to use Chaetoceros calcitrans as supplementary feed. Its effect in increasing the immune competence coupled with its antibacterial action, make the shrimp resistant to luminous vibriosis that continues to affect the industry, thereby augmenting aquaculture production.
    • Article

      Fatty acid composition of five candidate aquaculture species in Central Philippines 

      HY Ogata, AC Emata, ES Garibay & H Furuita - Aquaculture, 2004 - Elsevier
      Fatty acid composition was determined in five candidate aquaculture species, mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), two rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus and S. canaliculatus), coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) and striped jack (Caranx fulvoguttatus) sampled in the Central Philippines. Special attention was paid to arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Total lipids of hatchery-produced eggs and newly hatched larvae of mangrove red snapper unexpectedly had equal levels of ARA and EPA. Ovarian polar lipids were subsequently found to have intermediate or high ARA (5.5–10.7%) and DHA (14.4–20.4%) levels but relatively low EPA levels (1.5–1.9%), consequently showing high ARA/EPA (4.4–6.0) and DHA/EPA (7.4–14.9) ratios in wild mangrove red snapper and rabbitfish (S. guttatus and S. canaliculatus). Similar trends were observed even in hatchery-reared mangrove red snapper, rabbitfish (S. guttatus) and coral trout. Not only ovary but also liver and muscle contained relatively higher ARA compared with EPA in mangrove red snapper, regardless of the sample source. ARA, EPA and DHA levels in the polar lipids of wild fry (whole body) ranged respectively from 3.2% to 4.0%, from 2.7% to 4.7% and from 23.5% to 27.6% with intermediate or high ARA/EPA (0.8–1.5) and DHA/EPA (5.9–8.8) ratios in mangrove red snapper, rabbitfish (S. canaliculatus) and striped jack. As overall traits, the five species in the Central Philippines appear to have intermediate or high ARA and DHA levels with low EPA level, consequently having high ARA/EPA and DHA/EPA ratios compared to species in high and temperate northern hemisphere. Thus, the present results indicate that ARA is not a minor component in the tropical species, suggesting that ARA may be nutritionally much more important for egg development and larvae growth in the tropical species than in cold water species. The information of the present study can be used as a guideline for development of appropriate broodstock and/or larval diets in the Philippines.
    • Article

      Growth and fatty acid composition of Penaeus monodon juveniles fed various lipids. 

      MR Catacutan - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1991 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      A 4-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the growth and fatty acid composition of Penaeus monodon juveniles fed dietary lipids from different sources. The animal lipid (cod liver oil, pork lard and beef tallow) and plant lipid (soybean oil, coconut oil and corn oil) sources were fed at 4%, 8% or 12% levels in semi-purified diets. There was no significant interaction between lipid source and lipid level (alpha = 0.05) but the weight gain and specific growth rate of prawns fed 12% cod liver oil were significantly higher than all other treatments. Prawns fed soybean oil followed and then animals fed corn oil. Coconut oil, pork lard and beef tallow were poor lipid sources for the P. monodon juveniles. The fatty acid composition of the prawns reflected that of the dietary lipids and HUFAs were incorporated more into the polar lipid fraction. The fatty acids 16:0 and 16:1 increased in prawns fed no lipids. The ratio on n3/n6 was high in prawns fed cod liver oil. For juvenile P. monodon, 2.6% dietary HUFA enhance growth; levels of 18:2n6 > 5% have a negative effect.
    • Article

      Growth and fatty acid production of thraustochytrids from Panay mangroves, Philippines 

      EM Leaño, RSJ Gapasin, B Polohan & LLP Vrijmoed - Fungal Diversity, 2003 - Mushroom Research Foundation
      Optimization of culture conditions with regard to the combined effects of salinity and temperature on biomass and fatty acid production of four thraustochytrid isolates were undertaken. Two strains of Schizochytrium mangrovei (IAo-1 and IXm-6), and one isolate each of Schizochytrium sp. (BSn-1) and Thraustochytrium sp. (IRa-8), isolated from fallen mangrove leaves, were used in this study. Results of the physiological study show that the best growth condition for Schizochytrium isolates was at a salinity range of 15-30 ‰ at 20-30°C, while that for Thraustochytrium sp. was at 22.5-30 ‰ at 25°C. Highest biomass production was 350 mg 50 mL-1 for Schizochytrium spp., and 133 mg 50 mL-1 for Thraustochytrium sp. Total lipid content (% freeze-dried biomass) ranged from 16.0-33.2% for S. mangrovei, 13.0-39.1% for Schizochytrium sp., and 11.4-37.5% for Thraustochytrium sp. Highest lipid production was observed at 15-22.5 ‰ salinity (25°C) for S. mangrovei, and at 15 ‰ (25°C) for Schizochytrium sp. and Thraustochytrium sp. Palmitic acid (16:0) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) were the major components of the total fatty acid (TFA) content, comprising about 39-42% and 24-35%, repectively.
    • Article

      Improved larval survival at metamorphosis of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) using ω3-HUFA-enriched live food 

      P Dhert, P Lavens, M Duray & P Sorgeloos - Aquaculture, 1990 - Elsevier
      Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) larvae were fed Brachionus cultured on Chlorella and, as soon as ingestin was possible, different types of Artemia, i.e., nauplii of the San Francisco Bay (SFB) strain, Great Salt Lake (GSL) strain or GSL nauplii that had been bioencapsulated with an emulsion containing high levels of the ω3-HUFAs (highly unsaturated fatty acids) 20:5 and 22:6. San Francisco Bay Artemia with a good natural fatty acid profile and small body size could be offered earlier than the larger but HUFA-poor Great Salt Lake strain. The poor nutritional quality of the latter, however, could be corrected by enriching the nauplii with an ω3-HUFA emulsion for 24 h, after which time high levels of the ω3-HUFAs 20:5 and 22:6 were obtained. When the Artemia diet offered before metamorphosis included natural or supplemented essential fatty acids, no significant differences in dry weight, length or survival of the fish were noticed, as compared to fish fed the naturally deficient GSL Artemia. Onset of metamorphosis and physiological condition after metamorphosis, however, were influenced by the HUFA content of the ingested prey. Seabass larvae fed SFB or enriched GSL Artemia started metamorphosis on day 19, while those in the non-enriched series never achieved metamorphosis and died of a nutritional deficiency syndrome by day 27. An indication of the physiological condition of the larvae and the early detection of the syndrome was possible by subjecting 21- and 25-day-old larvae to a stress test: abrupt exposure of the larvae to 65-ppt saline water resulted in abundant and early mortality in HUFA-deficient fish larvae. Fry receiving ω3-HUFA-fortified Artemia had a superior physiological condition which was reflected by significantly lower mortality figures in the stress test.
    • Article

      Interactive effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on growth performance, fatty acid composition and reduction of oxidative stress in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed dietary oxidized fish oil 

      J Gao, S Koshio, M Ishikawa, S Yokoyama & REP Mamauag - Aquaculture, 2014 - Elsevier
      A study was conducted to determine the interactive effects of vitamin C (VC) and E (VE) supplementation on growth, fatty acid composition and oxidative status of Japanese flounder juveniles. Fish (initial average body weight of 1.1 ± 0.1 g) in triplicate were fed five test diets for 60 days. Control diet contained fresh fish oil (FFO, 8.9 meq/kg) with 100 mg α-tocopherol (α-Toc) equivalents/kg of VE and 500 mg ascorbic acid (AsA) equivalents/kg of VC (FFO100E/500C). The other four diets contained oxidized fish oil (OFO, 167.8 meq/kg) with varying levels of VE (mg/kg) and VC (mg/kg) (OFO100E/500C, OFO200E/500C, OFO100E/1000C and OFO200E/1000C). Fish fed FFO100E/500C and OFO100E/500C had no differences in body weight gain (BWG). However, fish fed OFO200E/1000C diet had a significantly lower BWG than FFO100E/500C. Fish fed OFO200E/500C and OFO100E/1000C showed no differences in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values compared with FFO100E/500C. Increasing the levels of VC and VE supplementation increased liver AsA and α-Toc contents, respectively. Liver α-Toc content was significantly increased with incremental dietary VC levels, indicating a sparing effect of VC on liver α-Toc content of fish. Increasing the levels of dietary VC and VE supplementations decreased concentrations of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in fish liver. Fish fed OFO100E/500C and OFO200E/1000C diets showed higher oxidative stress condition than those fed FFO100E/500C. In conclusion, dietary VC and VE supplementation could maintain normal growth and health condition of juvenile Japanese flounder fed OFO. However, high doses of both vitamin supplements induced fish lipid peroxidation under oxidative stress condition.
    • Article

      Lipid and fatty acid composition of brackishwater- and freshwater-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos Forskal) 

      MN Bautista, MJ del Valle & FM Orejana - Aquaculture, 1991 - Elsevier
      Lipid and fatty acid composition of the various sections of brackishwater- and freshwater-reared milkfish were determined by chromatographic methods. Lipids consisted mainly of the neutral type, which in turn was composed primarily of triglycerides and cholesterol esters. Palmitic and stearic acids were the predominant saturated fatty acids in both types of fish, although the brackishwaterreared milkfish contained more palmitic acid and the freshwater-reared milkfish more stearic acid. Unsaturated fatty acids of C16 and C18 were more characteristic of the freshwater-reared milkfish lipid, while those of C20 and C22 were the major acids of the brackishwater-reared milkfish lipid. Saturation and unsaturation in the fatty acid composition characterized both types of fish although the brackishwater-reared milkfish lipids had fatty acids of higher unsaturations (C20 and C22).
    • Article

      Lipid and fatty acid composition of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) grown in freshwater and seawater 

      IG Borlongan & LV Benitez - Aquaculture, 1992 - Elsevier
      The lipid and fatty acid compositions of the various organs of milkfish fed with an invariant diet and reared in seawater (SW) and freshwater (FW) were determined using column chromatography and gas chromatography. Phospholipid content of the gills, kidney, liver, intestines and depot fat was higher in SW than in FW while the organs from fish in FW had higher contents of neutral lipid. Fatty acid patterns of total lipids in the liver, intestines and depot fat of milkfish reared in FW and SW were similar. There were marked differences in fatty acid patterns of gills and kidney. The proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in gills and kidney were lower in SW than in FW. Likewise, the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of gills and kidney were higher in SW than in FW. The fatty acid patterns of the phospholipid fractions showed that SW-reared milkfish have higher total PUFAs, especially of the n-3 fatty acids, than the FW-reared milkfish not only in gills and kidney but in all organs examined. The differences in lipid and fatty acid composition reflect a physiological response to the salinity in which milkfish were reared.
    • Article

      Lipids and fatty acids in wild and pond-reared mud crab Scylla serrata (Forsskål) during ovarian maturation and spawning 

      VR Alava, ET Quinitio, JB De Pedro, FMP Priolo, ZGA Orozco & M Wille - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell
      Wild-caught and pond-reared female mud crab Scylla serrata at different stages of ovarian maturation were collected from Samar and Capiz, Philippines. Crabs were categorized into five stages according to the external morphological and microscopic appearance of the most advanced oocytes. The ovaries, hepatopancreas, muscle and newly spawned eggs (NSE) were analysed for lipid class components and fatty acids. Total lipid was higher in pond-reared than in wild-caught crabs but increased with ovarian maturation in both groups. Ovarian lipid peaked at the fully mature stage, coinciding with a decline in hepatopancreatic and muscle lipids. Lipid levels declined significantly in spent females. The tissues contained elevated highly unsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids, but at higher levels in late maturing and fully mature ovaries and in NSE. The type of lipid class and fatty acid components in mature ovaries as well as in NSE are generally considered to be indicative of their importance in reproductive physiology and embryonic and larval development.
    • Article

      Measures of egg quality in induced spawns of the Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer Bloch 

      JN Nocillado, VD Peñaflorida & IG Borlongan - Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 2000 - Springer Verlag
      The egg morphometry and lipid and protein components were determined in induced spawns (n = 14) of the sea bass, Lates calcarifer, to identify measures of egg quality. Based on fertilization and hatching rates, the spawns were classified either in Group I, (zero fertilization) or Group II (where fertilization and hatching occurred). The egg morphometry did not differ between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total lipid was higher in Group II than in Group I, although the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). The EPA and linoleic acid were significantly higher in Group II (p < 0.05). There were positive correlations between the total saturated fatty acids and fertilization rate (p < 0.05; r = 0.58), the total saturated fatty acids and percentage of normal zygotes (p < 0.02; r = 0.62), and DHA and the percentage of normal zygotes (p < 0.04; r = 0.56). The total protein and FAAs were higher in Group I than in Group II, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Proline, glycine, p-ethanolamine, and aspartic acid were significantly higher in Group II (p < 0.05), while tyrosine and glutamic acid were significantly higher in Group I (p < 0.05). Phosphoserine and fertilization rate were positively correlated (p < 0.03; r = 0.60), as well as aspartic acid and hatching rate (p < 0.05; r = 0.54). Arginine was negatively correlated with fertilization rate (p < 0.03; r = -0.61) and the percentage of normal zygotes (p < 0.03; r = -0.63). Serine was inversely correlated with yolk volume of the newly-hatched larvae (p < 0.03; r = -0.77). The moisture content of the eggs, which was significantly higher in Group II than in Group I (p < 0.03), was directly correlated with the FAAs:protein ratio (p < 0.03; r = 0.76). The present results reveal egg components that may be used as quality measures in induced spawns of sea bass, a euryhaline teleost that spawn pelagic eggs containing an oil globule.
    • Article

      Reproductive performance of hatchery-bred donkey's ear abalone, Haliotis asinina, Linne, fed natural and artificial diets 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, OM Millamena & AC Fermin - Aquaculture Research, 2001 - Blackwell Publishing
      Hatchery-bred donkey's ear abalone, Haliotis asinina, Linne broodstock were given diets consisting of natural food, seaweed (SW), Gracilariopsis bailinae, D1; combination of SW and artificial diet (AD), D2; and AD alone, D3. Equal numbers of 1 : 1 female and male abalone were stocked in 24 units, 60 L tanks with eight replicate tanks per dietary treatment. Reproductive performance, e.g. number of spawnings, instantaneous fecundity and egg hatching rates, was monitored over 270 days. The mean number of spawnings was not significantly different among treatments. The mean instantaneous fecundity and percent hatching rates were significantly higher in abalone fed D2 or D3 compared to those given D1. Survival of abalone broodstock fed D1 was, however, significantly higher at 88% than those fed either D2 or D3 at 75%. Fatty acid analysis showed that the n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratios of abalone hepatopancreas reflected those of their diets. Mature abalone ovary had n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio of 1.3. A higher amount of essential nutrients in the artificial diet such as protein, lipid and the highly unsaturated fatty acids, e.g. 20 : 4n-6, 20 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 in abalone fed D2 or D3, may have influenced the increased reproductive performance.
    • Article

      Reproductive performance, lipids and fatty acids of mud crab Scylla serrata (Forsskål) fed dietary lipid levels 

      VR Alava, ET Quinitio, JB de Pedro, ZGA Orosco & M Wille - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      Natural food (NF, control), artificial diets (AD) containing total lipid levels of 10%, 12% and 14% (AD10, AD12 and AD14) and their combinations (AD10+NF, AD12+NF and AD14+NF) were fed for 112 days to pond-sourced eyestalk-ablated mud crab Scylla serrata (625±6.4 g) in tanks in order to determine their effects on reproduction and lipid profiles in broodstock tissues and zoeae. Crabs fed NF had the highest number of spawning followed by crabs fed AD10+NF and AD14+NF. Higher offspring production (number of zoeae) was obtained from crabs fed NF and AD+NF than from AD. As dietary total lipid levels increased, total lipid of broodstock ovaries, hepatopancreas, muscle and zoeae correspondingly increased in which AD+NF promoted higher levels than AD. Increased dietary total lipid levels enhanced lipid classes such as triacylglycerols and phosphatidyl choline levels in zoeae, all higher in crabs fed AD+NF than in AD. The major fatty acids in zoeae, particularly 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9 and 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, were higher in crabs fed AD+NF than in AD, the contents corresponding to broodstock dietary total lipid levels. A 10% total lipid in AD in combination with NF was sufficient to provide the essential lipids in crabs in the improvement of larval production and quality.
    • Article

      Response of bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis and Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus larvae to free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus as alternative feed 

      CB Santiago, AC Gonzal, M Ricci & S Harpaz - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2003 - Blackwell Publishing
      The use of Panagrellus redivivus as live feed for bighead carp and Asian catfish larvae was tested. In experiment 1, carp larvae were given Artemia nauplii (control) or Panagrellus twice daily for 21 days. A third treatment consisted of unfed larvae. The same three treatments were used in experiment 2 plus another with a commercial entomopathogenic nematode (EPN). Bighead carp larvae given Panagrellus in experiment 1 had much lower growth and survival than those fed Artemia nauplii. This could be due to low nematode density (5–30 mL−1 water) during feeding. The unfed larvae had 100% mortality by days 11–13. In experiment 2, growth and survival of carp larvae given Artemia nauplii (5–10 mL−1) and Panagrellus (50 mL−1) did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). All unfed larvae had died by day 13, while larvae fed EPN were all dead by day 8. Two experiments on Asian catfish were likewise conducted. In experiment 1, the catfish larvae were fed Tubifex (ad libitum), Panagrellus (50–100 mL−1 per feeding) orArtemia (5 nauplii mL−1 per feeding) three times daily for 14 days. In experiment 2, larvae were fed Artemia alone (10 nauplii mL−1 per feeding), Panagrellus alone (100 mL−1 per feeding), or their combination with a 38% protein dry diet twice daily. For both experiments, catfish larvae fed Panagrellus had significantly lower growth and survival than those fed Tubifex or Artemia. The combination of Panagrellus and dry diet created little improvement in the growth and survival of catfish larvae.