Now showing items 601-620 of 1070

    • Article

      Larval rearing of the grouper Epinephelus suillus under laboratory conditions 

      MN Duray, CB Estudillo & LG Alpasan - Aquaculture, 1997 - Elsevier
      A protocol for rearing orange-spotted rockcod, Epinephelus suillus in the hatchery is described. The feeding regime consisted of Chlorella, Brachionus, Artemia and minced fish. With this regime, survival rates at Day 24 were 19.8% in 3-ton tanks and only 7.4% in 0.5-ton tanks. From an initial length of 1.62 mm on Day 0, larvae grew to 10.94 mm on Day 24 and 51.4–65.1 mm on Day 60. Larval growth and survival rate were improved when larvae were fed screened (less than 90 μm) Brachionus during the first 2 weeks. Survival was even better among larvae fed Brachionus until Day 35. Artemia, at a density of 3 ml−1, given once daily to larvae in 24 ppt seawater improved growth and survival.
    • Article

      Larval rearing of the Philippine freshwater catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther), fed live zooplankton and artificial diet: A preliminary study 

      AC Fermin & MEC Bolivar - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1991 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      A preliminary study was conducted to determine growth and survival of Clarias macrocephalus fed live zooplankton (Artemia or Moina macrocopa ) and/or a dry artificial diet. The specific growth rate over a 14-day rearing period was higher for fish fed Artemia plus a dry diet than for other treatment groups fed either live zooplankton or a dry artificial diet alone. C. macrocephalus larvae can directly take dry diet during the early days of exogenous feeding, however, continued feeding on dry artificial diet resulted in poor fish growth and survival. Mortality due to observed cannibalism in fish fed exclusively an artificial diet increased from 4% to 18% during the last two days of the rearing period. A significantly lower proportion of mortality due to cannibalism was observed in those fed an artificial diet after a 7-day period of feeding on Artemia . The survival rate was generally high, except for the fish fed a dry diet alone.
    • Article

      The larval stages of benizuwai-gani, Chinoecetes japonicus Rathbun reared in the laboratory 

      H Motoh - Nippon Suisan Gakkai Shi. Bulletin Of The Japanese Society Of Scientific Fisheries, 1976 - The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science
      This study deals with the larval stages of C. japonicus, and with the comparison with those of Zuwaigani, C. opilio. There are 2 zoneae and 1 megalopa. The larval stages of C. japonicus are morphologically similar to those of C. opilio excepting some characters as follows: (1) Chromatophores of Zoeae and megalopa are vermillion or crimson in C. japonicus and brown or reddish in C. opilio. (2) C. japonicus is generally bigger than C. opilio in zoeae and megalopa. (3) Length of postero-lateral spine on 3rd abdominal segment is>1.3times the length of the 4th abdominal segment in C. japonicus, but is shorter than (rarely equal to) that in C. opilio. (4) Ischiopodite of cheliped has no spine in C. japonicus, but it has a spine in C. opilio, in megalopa.
    • Article

      Larviculture of marine species in Southeast Asia: current research and industry prospects 

      CL Marte - Aquaculture, 2003 - Elsevier
      The increased requirement for food fish, the lucrative market for expensive seafood, and the need to conserve marine resources, have motivated the rapid pace of larviculture research in Southeast Asia. Various research and academic institutions in Southeast Asia such as the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC AQD) are carrying out research on commercially important marine species including 10 fish, 6 crustacean, and 7 mollusk species. Since fry availability is a major constraint in the development of culture systems, a major research thrust of SEAFDEC AQD is the development of commercially viable technologies for breeding and seed production of commercially important marine fish and crustaceans such as milkfish, groupers, snappers and mud crabs, in addition to the production of fry and juveniles of endangered and depleted species such as the sea horse and the tropical abalone for stock enhancement and sea ranching.

      Although hatchery production of milkfish and sea bass are now commercially viable enterprises, research is being pursued to improve fry quality through feed supplementation and to lower production cost by using alternative live or artificial feeds. Larviculture techniques are being developed for technically demanding species such as groupers and snappers. The recent success in larviculture of the mud crab Scylla serrata is expected to stimulate the growth of the mud crab industry in the region. Similarly, encouraging developments in the breeding and larviculture of the sea horse and mollusks such as the tropical abalone will provide the necessary support to carry out future stock enhancement and sea ranching programs for these species.
    • Article

      The Leiognathus aureus complex (Perciformes: Leiognathidae) with the description of a new species 

      S Kimura, PV Dunlap, T Peristiwady & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - Ichthyological Research, 2003 - Ichthyological Society of Japan
      Taxonomic analysis of a group of morphologically similar ponyfishes (Perciformes: Leiognathidae) establishes a complex comprising three valid species: Leiognathus aureus Abe and Haneda, 1972, widely distributed in the western Pacific Ocean (Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, and northern Australia); L. hataii Abe and Haneda, 1972, currently known only from Ambon, Indonesia; and L. panayensis sp. nov. Kimura and Dunlap, currently known only from Panay Island, the Philippines. The L. aureus complex can be defined by the following combination of characters: mouth protruding forward, not downward; small but sharp conical teeth uniserially on jaws; a black line between lower margin of eye and lower jaw articulation; and lateral line incomplete, ending below posterior part of dorsal fin base or on anterior caudal peduncle. Leiognathus hataii differs from both L. aureus and L. panayensis in having a large dark blotch below the spinous dorsal fin base and fewer counts of scales (lateral line scales 50–58 vs. 64–85 in the latter two species; scales above lateral line 7–10 vs. 12–18; scales below lateral line 22–26 vs. 30–41). Leiognathus panayensis is distinguished from L. aureus in having a deeper body (41–51% SL vs. 35–45% SL in the latter), long posterior limb of maxilla (21–25% HL vs. 15–23% HL), wholly scaled belly (vs. naked along preanal median keel), and a dark blotch on nape (vs. absent).
    • Article

      The length-weight relationship, food habits and condition factor of wild juvenile milkfish in Sri Lanka 

      T Bagarinao & K Thayaparan - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      Wild juvenile milkfish (Chanos chanos) were obtained from Negombo lagoon in September 1984. Thirty-one specimens (92–186 mm FL) had a fork length-body weight relationship of log W = −5.6083 + 3.2598 log L. These fish were caught in the early morning and had empty guts. The mean condition factor (K) was 8.7. The intestine length to fork length ratio (I) was 3.7. Two large specimens (245 mm and 340 mm FL) caught around mid-day from the ocean off Negombo had full guts. Food was mostly blue-green algae, diatoms and detritus, with a number of copepods and nematodes. These fish had K values of 11.7 and 13.6 and I values of 8.1 and 8.5. The age and the month of spawning of these fish were back-calculated using known milkfish growth rates. It seems that in Sri Lanka, milkfish spawn from January to at least November.
    • Article

      A lesson from cyclone Larry: An untold story of the success of good coastal planning 

      MJ Williams, R Coles & JH Primavera - Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 2007 - Elsevier
      When tropical cyclone Larry crossed the Queensland coast on 20 March 2006, commercial, recreational and naval vessels in the port of Cairns, 60 km north of the eye of the cyclone and others closer to the eye, were protected from the destructive winds by sheltering in deep mangrove creeks in Trinity Inlet and off other coastal rivers. The Trinity Inlet mangroves are protected under the comprehensive multi-use Trinity Inlet Management Plan, agreed by the local and state government agencies (Cairns City Council, the Cairns Port Authority and the Queensland Government). Using this Australian example and one from the town of Palompon in Leyte province, central Philippines, we show how long-term mangrove habitat protection resulting from well-conceived coastal planning can deliver important economic and infrastructure benefits.
    • Article

      Leucaena leucocephala leaves in formulated feed for Penaeus monodon: a concrete example of the application of histology in nutrition research 

      G Vogt, ET Quinitio & FP Pascual - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      Penaeus monodon postlarvae were fed with formulated diets containing either soaked or unsoaked Leucaena leaves. A similarly prepared feed with soybean in place of Leucaena was used for comparison. Results were analysed by statistical and histological methods.

      Results of the 4-week feeding experiment showed that mean weight gains and percentage survival of the prawns fed with the two Leucaena-containing diets were higher, but not significantly different from soybean-containing diet. The content of the poisonous amino acid mimosine in the Leucaena leaves could be reduced about 70% by soaking the leaves in freshwater for 24 h. Highest weight gain was obtained with the feed containing these soaked leaves.

      In addition to growth and survival, the R-cells of the midgut glands of the postlarvae were investigated by light and electron microscopy. Although the statistical growth values and the proximate analyses of the test diets were similar, a food-specific ultrastructure was established after only 4 days of feeding. All diets resulted in subcellular characteristics typical for well fed prawns and, at that time, the Leucaena diets were already slightly superior to the soybean control. This indicates that different sources of macronutrients lead to different ultrastructures even if the proximate analyses of protein, carbohydrate and lipid are similar.

      Only slight changes in the R-cells were observed after 11, 20 and 28 days in the prawns fed with the soybean diet compared to 4 days of feeding. In the diet containing unsoaked Leucaena leaves, however, many R-cells became heavily damaged after 20 and 28 days, whereas the prawns fed with the diet containing soaked leaves exhibited less pronounced distortion. Statistical analyses of growth and survival rate did not show these adverse effects at that time. Although it is highly probable that the mimosine is responsible for those pathological symptoms, complementary experiments could not clearly prove that.

      The effects of feed components are visible on the cellular or organ level after only a few days, whereas the individuals (organism level) reflect them about 10 days later. Another 10 days later the changes are manifested in the population. Therefore it is suggested to use histology in nutrition studies as a supplementary source of information to statistical and biochemical parameters. The midgut glands can further be used to monitor the nutritional condition of prawns in aquaculture, sea ranching, and in ecological investigations.

      The study confirms that Leucaena leaves are a promising protein source for prawn diets if mimosine could be reduced to a very low level. A mimosine level of 0.25% in the feed is still too high, if the diet is used uninterruptedly for several weeks.
    • Article

      Level and percentage recovery of resistance to oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid of bacteria from shrimp ponds 

      EA Tendencia & LD dela Peña - Aquaculture, 2002 - Elsevier
      The bacterial level of the water, sediment and cultured shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from different ponds were determined using a general medium, a presumptive Vibrio medium and a presumptive Pseudomonas–Aeromonas medium. Samples were taken from ponds that had not used any antimicrobial, ponds that had previously used and also ponds that were currently using oxolinic acid (OXA). The bacterial level in the sediment was higher than in the water using all three media. More bacteria existed in the pond system than in the receiving environment. Shrimp hepatopancreas harbored more bacteria than the lymphoid organ. The Vibrio density of the pond and bacterial levels in the shrimp were correlated with the use of the antimicrobial. The Vibrio level of the pond samples and microbial density of shrimps were higher from ponds that had not used any antimicrobials.

      The percentage recoveries of resistance to oxytetracycline (OTC) and OXA in bacteria from shrimp ponds and cultured shrimps were also determined using Zobell's marine agar, Pseudomonas–Aeromonas selective agar and thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose agar (TCBS) with the addition of either 25 μg/ml OTC or 25 μg/ml OXA. Presumptive Vibrio bacteria and other bacterial taxa recovered from the pond/receiving water/sediment from all three sites showed some degree of resistance to OTC and OXA. However, a higher percentage recovery of strains resistant to OTC than to OXA was observed among the presumptive vibrios and other bacterial taxa. Pseudomonas and Aeromonas bacteria were more resistant to OXA compared with the vibrios. All bacterial taxa resistant to OTC were more readily recovered from the water samples than from the sediment samples. In general, between the samples from the pond and from the receiving environment, a higher percentage of resistant strains was observed in the latter. Higher percentage recovery of bacteria resistant to OXA was observed in shrimp from ponds currently using OXA than those from ponds that had not used any or those that had previously used them. The results of the present study showed that the percentage recovery of resistance reflected the pattern of antimicrobial use.
    • Article

      Level of L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg as a vitamin C source in practical diets for the Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer 

      MR Catacutan, GE Pagador, EF Doyola-Solis, M Ishikawa & Si Teshima - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2012 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology (SIAMB)
      The stable vitamin C derivative, L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg (AMP), was used as a supplement in practical diets for Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Optimum growth, liver ascorbic acid (AA) saturation, and wound healing were determined. Sea bass (78.9±0.4 g) were fed a maintenance diet without vitamin C supplement for 25 days, then distributed into fifteen 1500-l oval fiberglass tanks at 30 fish each and fed one of five practical diets containing 0, 50, 100, 200, or 400 AMP mg/kg diet for 14 weeks. Fish fed the AMP-free diet exhibited clinical signs of vitamin C deficiency and significantly poorer final average weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio, and hematocrit level (p<0.05). The level of AA in the sea bass brain increased as the level of dietary AMP increased. The AA concentration in the liver was similar at all AMP dietary levels. Body calcium of sea bass fed the AMP-free or 50 mg diets was significantly lower (p<0.05) than in fish fed the other diets. AMP enhanced wound healing regardless of supplement level, but fish fed the highest dietary AMP (400 mg/kg diet) exhibited histopathological changes in the liver. The dietary level of 50 mg AMP/kg diet was adequate for optimum growth, liver AA saturation, and prevention of clinical signs of vitamin C deficiency in 80-220 g sea bass. However, 100 mg AMP per kg diet was necessary for optimum body calcium.
    • Article

      LHRH-a and domperidone-induced oocyte maturation and ovulation in bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson) 

      AC Fermin - Aquaculture, 1991 - Elsevier
      Effects of intraperitoneal injections of LHRH-a and domperidone (DOM), given singly or in combination at two injections, on oocyte maturation, ovulation and spawning in bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis, were investigated. Results were compared with the existing protocol using HCG + LHRH-a at 1800 IU and 20 μg/kg BW, respectively, to induce spawning in bighead carp. Oocyte diameter of fish at 6 h after the second injection of LHRH-a + DOM and HCG + LHRH-a had significantly increased to 7.0% and 7.5% respectively, as compared to the 0 h group (P<0.05); fish injected with LHRH-a, DOM or saline had significantly lower increases (1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0%, respectively). Ovulation was induced in 75% and 60% of fish injected with LHRH-a + DOM and HCG + LHRH-a, respectively. In contrast, fish treated with LHRH-a, DOM or saline did not ovulate. Total eggs spawned, and fertilization and hatching rates did not differ significantly (P<0.05) between the two groups with ovulated fish. Although injection protocols using LHRH-a + DOM and HCG + LHRH-a were equally effective in inducing spawning of bighead carp, the former had a lower combined cost than the latter.
    • Article

      LHRHa and pimozide-induced spawning of Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther) at different times during an annual reproductive cycle 

      JD Tan-Fermin, RR Pagador & RC Chavez - Aquaculture, 1997 - Elsevier
      Captive Clarias macrocephalus were induced to spawn during the off-season (February), before (May), during (August) and end (November) of the natural breeding period to test their seasonal responsiveness to hormone treatment, and assess the resulting egg and larval quality. Intramuscular injections were given to five fish in each treatment consisting of 0.05 μg LHRHa + 1 μg PIM g−1 body weight (BW), 0.05 μg LHRHa, 1 μg PIM, or LHRHa vehicle (0.9% NaCl) and PIM vehicle (1 dimethylsulfoxide: 9 propylene glycol, v/v). At any phase of the annual cycle, only fish injected with a combination of LHRHa and PIM spawned, although initial egg size was similar among fish within a season. However, initial egg size was largest in fish induced to spawn in May (1.59 mm), followed by fish induced in August and November (1.54 mm), and smallest in fish induced in February (1.49 mm). All fish ovulated when induced to spawn in May and August, but ovulation rates decreased to 80% and 60% when fish were injected in November and February, respectively. Catfish induced to spawn in May, August and November had higher egg production, fertilization and larval survival rates than the fish induced in February. Hatching rates were higher in fish induced in May and August than in February, while hatching rate of fish induced in November was similar to those spawned at other times of the year. These results provide useful information regarding the broodstock management and hatchery production of C. macrocephalus.
    • Article

      Light color and ovarian maturation in unablated and ablated giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) 

      JH Primavera & RMV Caballero - Aquaculture, 1992 - Elsevier
      The effect of light color (green, blue and white fluorescent lights, with natural light as a control) on maturation in intact and eyestalk-ablated Penaeus monodon was tested in 12-m3 broodstock tanks. Size and quality of sequential spawns from ablated females were also compared. In Experiment 1, unablated females under green light produced the highest number of spawns (5), total number of eggs (4.26 × 106), total number of nauplii (2.69 × 106) and mean egg counts (6537 eggs g−1 female), the latter significantly higher than in the other treatments. Mean nauplii counts were higher under green (3979 g−1 female) and natural (3303 g−1 female) light compared to the other treatments. Mean hatch rate was highest in control (87.3%) but this was not significantly different from green light (61.8%). In Experiment 3, ablated females under natural light gave the highest total number of eggs (13.04 × 106) and nauplii (9.74 × 106). Mean egg and nauplii counts were significantly higher in the natural (4436 eggs and 3308 nauplii g−1 female) and green (4016 eggs and 2906 nauplii g−1 female) light treatments compared to white. Hatchability was similar for all treatments. In Experiment 2 (using green light), ablation increased the total number of spawns, eggs and nauplii 14 to 17 times. Rematuration data showed no significant differences in spawn size (egg counts); hatchability and nauplii counts of sequential spawns were similar in Experiment 2 but tended to decrease in Experiment 3.
    • Article

      Limit of colour vision in dim light in larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

      G Kawamura, TU Bagarinao, ASK Yong, AB Faisal & LS Lim - Fisheries Science, 2018 - Springer Verlag
      Colour vision depends on sufficient ambient light and becomes ineffective at a particular low light intensity. It is not known how decapod crustaceans see colour in dim light. In the present study we investigated the colour vision threshold in larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a tank under natural illumination. Plastic beads of different colours (blue, red, yellow and white) in various combinations were suspended in the tank. The larvae swam straight toward the beads and gathered around them. The number of larvae was highest on the blue and white beads. The luminance in the tank was then gradually decreased by covering it with different numbers of layers of black cloth, and the response of the larvae to the beads was video-recorded under infrared illumination. The preference for blue and white beads remained manifest as the luminance was reduced from 418 to 0.07 cd/m2, but not at 0.02 cd/m2, indicating a colour vision threshold between 0.07 and 0.02 cd/m2. The larvae have apposition compound eyes with large optical parameters, comparable to those of apposition eyes of nocturnal insects, which presumably capture more light and show enhanced sensitivity, enabling the larvae to see colour in dim light.
    • Article

      Limnological features of Lake Buluan: Preliminary findings and observations 

      WG Yap, EA Baluyut & JMF Pavico - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1983 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      A limnological survey of Lake Buluan in Mindanao was conducted to evaluate its potentials for fishpen and fish cage culture. The lake was found to be shallow and highly productive, with the major physicochemical and biological parameters within ranges favorable for fish production.

      The lake has high gross primary production values attributable to high densities of phytoplankton, primarily blue-green algae. It has a high annual yield of 10,000 mt of fish, which when divided by its area of 6,000 hectares, gives an average production of 1.64 mt/ha/yr - the highest open water catch in the Philippines and in Southeast Asia today.
    • Article

      Limnological notes on the finfish production problem of Laguna de Bay. 

      AE Santiago - Natural and Applied Science Bulletin, 1988 - College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines
      Environmental problems have significantly affected fishery production and management in Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines. Fishermen and fishpen operators are complaining about the slow growth of fish and low yields in the lake. In the 70’s two croppings were possible in fishpens since it took only 3 to 4 months then rear milkfish from fingerlings to marketable size (Felix, 1976). But in the early 80’s, stocked fingerlings attained a marketable size of about 200 g after 8 to 15 months (LLDA, 1983). In 1973 when the total fishpen area was only 5,000 ha, the annual harvest was 4 metric tons (MT)/ha. When fishpens covered 31,000 ha of the lake area in 1982, the annual yield dropped to 2 MT/ha (Centeno et al., 1987). Furthermore, the total open water catch of nearly 83,000 MT in the early 60’s (Rabanal et al., 1964) was reduced to one-fourth in the 80's.

      While the big drop in yield has been largely attributed to the proliferation and mismanagement of fishpens, over-exploitation of lake resources, and seasonal changes in the productivity of the lake (Centeno et al., 1987), the author attributes the present crisis basically to a lack of understanding o the basic ecological attributes of Laguna de Bay and their relation to fish growth and production. This paper is a brief commentary on the Limnological characteristics of Laguna de Bay tat are quite important in finfish production.
    • Article

      Linoleic (ω6) and linolenic (ω3) acids in the diet of fingerling milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) 

      MB Teruel & MC de la Cruz - Aquaculture, 1988 - Elsevier
      Feeding trials were conducted to determine the effects of linoleic acids on growth, survival, fatty acid composition and liver histology of milkfish. Five isocaloric semi-purified diets were formulated, either lipid-free or containing the following lipids: 7% lauric acid (LA), 6% LA + 1% linoleic, 6% LA + 1% linolenic acid, and 6% LA + 0.5% linoleic + 0.05% linolenic acids, and fed to milkfish with an average weight of 1.55 ± 0.25 g. there were no significant differences in growth or survival between fish fed the lipid-free and the LA diets in the five treatments tested. However, growth of fish fed with linoleic and linolenic acids was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that obtained in fish fed lipid-free and LA diets. The best growth response (233%) was attained with fish fed linolenic acid alone. Fatty acid analyses of the total lipid showed that lipid-free and LA diets increased the levels of monoenoic acids in the fish. The addition of linoleic and linolenic acids, alone or in combination, suppressed the levels of these monoenes and increased the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Histological analyses using light microscopy revealed slight abnormalities in the hepatocytes of fish fed lipid-free and LA diets. Both linoleic and linolenic acids are effective for good growth and survival of fingerling milkfish; however, the effect of linolenic acid on the growth of this species is better than that of linoleic acid.
    • Article

      Lipid and fatty acid composition of brackishwater- and freshwater-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos Forskal) 

      MN Bautista, MJ del Valle & FM Orejana - Aquaculture, 1991 - Elsevier
      Lipid and fatty acid composition of the various sections of brackishwater- and freshwater-reared milkfish were determined by chromatographic methods. Lipids consisted mainly of the neutral type, which in turn was composed primarily of triglycerides and cholesterol esters. Palmitic and stearic acids were the predominant saturated fatty acids in both types of fish, although the brackishwaterreared milkfish contained more palmitic acid and the freshwater-reared milkfish more stearic acid. Unsaturated fatty acids of C16 and C18 were more characteristic of the freshwater-reared milkfish lipid, while those of C20 and C22 were the major acids of the brackishwater-reared milkfish lipid. Saturation and unsaturation in the fatty acid composition characterized both types of fish although the brackishwater-reared milkfish lipids had fatty acids of higher unsaturations (C20 and C22).
    • Article

      Lipid and fatty acid composition of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) grown in freshwater and seawater 

      IG Borlongan & LV Benitez - Aquaculture, 1992 - Elsevier
      The lipid and fatty acid compositions of the various organs of milkfish fed with an invariant diet and reared in seawater (SW) and freshwater (FW) were determined using column chromatography and gas chromatography. Phospholipid content of the gills, kidney, liver, intestines and depot fat was higher in SW than in FW while the organs from fish in FW had higher contents of neutral lipid. Fatty acid patterns of total lipids in the liver, intestines and depot fat of milkfish reared in FW and SW were similar. There were marked differences in fatty acid patterns of gills and kidney. The proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in gills and kidney were lower in SW than in FW. Likewise, the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of gills and kidney were higher in SW than in FW. The fatty acid patterns of the phospholipid fractions showed that SW-reared milkfish have higher total PUFAs, especially of the n-3 fatty acids, than the FW-reared milkfish not only in gills and kidney but in all organs examined. The differences in lipid and fatty acid composition reflect a physiological response to the salinity in which milkfish were reared.
    • Article

      Lipids and fatty acids in wild and pond-reared mud crab Scylla serrata (Forsskål) during ovarian maturation and spawning 

      VR Alava, ET Quinitio, JB De Pedro, FMP Priolo, ZGA Orozco & M Wille - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell
      Wild-caught and pond-reared female mud crab Scylla serrata at different stages of ovarian maturation were collected from Samar and Capiz, Philippines. Crabs were categorized into five stages according to the external morphological and microscopic appearance of the most advanced oocytes. The ovaries, hepatopancreas, muscle and newly spawned eggs (NSE) were analysed for lipid class components and fatty acids. Total lipid was higher in pond-reared than in wild-caught crabs but increased with ovarian maturation in both groups. Ovarian lipid peaked at the fully mature stage, coinciding with a decline in hepatopancreatic and muscle lipids. Lipid levels declined significantly in spent females. The tissues contained elevated highly unsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids, but at higher levels in late maturing and fully mature ovaries and in NSE. The type of lipid class and fatty acid components in mature ovaries as well as in NSE are generally considered to be indicative of their importance in reproductive physiology and embryonic and larval development.