Now showing items 1009-1028 of 1064

    • Article

      An ultrastructural study on the occurrence of aberrant spermatids in the testis of the river sculpin, Cottus hangiongensis 

      GF Quinitio & H Takahashi - Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 1992 - The Ichthyological Society of Japan
      The process of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis in the river sculpin,Cottus hangiongensis, was observed ultrastructurally. During spermatogenesis, some germinal cysts in the seminal lobules were found to contain spermatocytes, which were provided with irregularly shaped nuclei, doughnut-shaped mitochondria, and atypical intercellular bridges with multiple disk-like cisternae. In addition, many cysts containing binuclear spermatids were observed in the testis. Within the condensed chromatin of the paired nuclei of the aberrant spermatids, highly electron-dense granules occurred, becoming the core of successively developing chromatin globules. The chromatin globules increased in size, resulting in an enlargement of the paired nuclei. These cells were finally released from the cyst into the lumen of the seminal lobules and underwent further degeneration, thus appearing as characteristic ‘spermatid masses’ in the mature testes.
    • Article

      Ultrastructure of the anterior intestinal epithelia of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae under different feeding regimes 

      YH Primavera-Tirol, RM Coloso, GF Quinitio, R Ordonio-Aguilar & LV Laureta Jr. - Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 2014 - Springer Verlag
      Enterocytes of the anterior to midsection of the intestine in grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae were compared among different treatments: unfed to the point-of-no-return (PNR), fed natural food only, and co-fed natural food and artificial diet. On day 3, the nutritional condition of unfed grouper larvae regressed with its reduced enterocyte heights which were further degraded on day 4, the PNR, when all the enterocytes were in advanced stages of apoptosis. The apoptosis appeared to be internally directed via the mitochondria. Among day 3 fed larvae, enterocyte heights of those fed artificial diet did not differ from those fed natural food only. Dietary phospholipid deficiency was indicated in larvae co-fed artificial diet on day 3 with an unusually large chylomicron opening into the inter-enterocyte space, and on days 6 and 33 by intestinal steatosis. On day 19, scant to absent lipid droplets in enterocytes of larvae disclosed heightened nutritional requirement preparatory to metamorphosis. As observed in unfed day 3 and premetamorphic day 19 E. coioides, larvae undergoing critical periods and starvation during development employ apoptosis to dispose of degenerated enterocytes that are phagocytosed by adjacent healthy enterocytes without causing inflammatory distress. Upon metamorphosis, grouper larval gut develops better immunity fitness with eosinophilic granule cells observed in the intestinal epithelia of day 33 larvae. Future studies on grouper larval nutrition may consider the appropriate dietary phospholipid levels and larval competence to biosynthesize highly unsaturated fatty acid from linoleic acid vis-à-vis the use of plant ingredients in artificial diet formulations. In vivo challenge tests may validate appropriate dietary nutrient supplementation and lead to better feed formulation, matching the varying energetic demands and digestive capacities of developing E. coioides larvae.
    • Article

      The ultrastructure of the hepatocytes of the giant seaperch, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) (Pisces: Centropomidae), during starvation and refeeding with different diets. 

      EM Avila - Asian Marine Biology, 1986 - The Marine Biological Association of Hongkong
      Three groups of immature seaperch acclimated in the laboratory on a mixed commercial pellet and minced trashfish diet were starved for 30 days. Thereafter, the first group was starved for 7 more days, the second was refed with commercial pellets, and the third with trashfish. Through transmission electron microscopy, it was found that after the acclimation period the hepatocytes of Lates calcarifer were primarily lipid-storing. Upon starvation, the following modifications in the hepatocytes were evident: decrease of lipid reserves, hepatocyte shrinkage, mitochondrial swelling, dilation of the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), and the presence of lysosomes. Among the refed fish, only the hepatocytes of those which were given trashfish recovered from the injury. Recovery was indicated by the restitution of the morphology of the mitochondria, development of parallel stacks of RER, increase in lipid and glycogen, and the distinct compartition of the hepatocytes.
    • Article

      Uptake and depuration of mercury in the green mussel, Perna viridis Linnaeus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) 

      NC Rosell - Philippine Journal of Science, 1985 - Science and Technology Information Institute
      P. viridis were exposed to 3.6 ppb, and 100 ppb mercury. The mussels were also fed with algae that had been precontaminated with mercuric acetate to give a final mercury concentration of 10 ppb. Mercury bioaccumulation appears to be a function of time and concentration and is manifestly enhanced by the presence of mercury-contaminated food organisms.

      The pattern of mercury tissue distribution after 30 days exposure was found to be as follows: gills > visceral mass > mantle. Depuration is a slow process. The animals failed to purge themselves of the total amount accumulated in 45 days. Smaller mussels were observed to accumulate mercury faster than the larger ones. The Tolerance Limit Test (TLm) showed a mean mercury tissue concentration of 9,890 ppb wetweight after 65 hours exposure to 1.0 mu g Hg mL-1.
    • Article

      Uptake and elimination of inorganic mercury and selenium by minnows Phoxinus phoxinus 

      MLA Cuvin & RW Furness - Aquatic Toxicology, 1988 - Elsevier
      Minnows were kept in aquaria containing filtered water dosed with measured amounts of mercury as mercuric chloride and selenium as sodium selenate. Fishes exposed to selenium in combination with mercury showed significantly higher survival rates than those kept in tanks containing mercury alone. A 2 to 1 selenium to mercury molar ratio proved to be most effective in reducing mercury toxicity. The presence of selenium tended to increase the uptake of mercury from the water. There was no observed difference in the rate of mercury elimination in the presence or absence of selenium. These results suggest that the observed protective effect of selenium against the toxicity of mercury does not involve reduction of mercury uptake or enhancement of mercury elimination. The presence of mercury did not significantly affect selenium uptake. However, selenium elimination was reduced in the presence of mercury, suggesting that a mercury-selenium complex is formed.
    • Article

      Uptake and elimination of iodine-131 by the freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis Philippi from water 

      MLA Cuvin & RC Umaly - Natural and Applied Science Bulletin, 1988 - College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines
      Whole body uptake of Iodine-131 by the freshwater clam, Corbicula manilensis, from contaminated water was followed using NaI scintillation counter. The bioaccumulation factor (BF) exclusive of shell was 5.44. The degree of bioaccumulation of I-131 by the different tissues is as follows: visceral remains > gills > gut > gonads > mantle > muscle > foot. The specific activities of the different tissues corresponded with their BF values. The relative distribution of I-131 in the different tissues was generally proportional to the weight ratio of each tissue. Elimination studies gave the effective half-life, Te0.5, of 4.5 days. Estimation of Te0.5 in the different tissues gave the following values: 12 d (mantle), 3.9 d (gonad and muscle), 3.6 d (gut), 3.4 d (gills), 2.4 d (foot) and 1.9 d (visceral remains).
    • Article

      Uptake and some physiological effects of mercury on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms. 

      RA Tabbada, PE Florendo & AE Santiago - Biotropia, 1990 - SEAMEO
      The uptake and growth effects of mercury (Hg) on Eichhornia crassipes under field conditions and with lakewater as cultural medium were investigated. Absorption of the heavy metal increase with higher levels of Hg in the culture solution. Roots of the heavy metal than the leaves. The addition of 1 and 2 ppm of Hg into the culture medium was not toxic but significantly reduce fresh matter production, root elongation, ramet formation and total chlorophyll content of mature leaf blades during a four-week culture period. The results strongly suggest a beneficial role of the plant, long considered as a noxious weed, as a bioaccumulator of Hg in polluted lakes.
    • Article

      The use of a Visual Implant tag to monitor the reproductive performance of individual milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskal 

      AC Emata & CL Marte - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 1992 - Blackwell Publishing
      Nine-year old milkfish (3.8 kg., average body weight) were individually marked with Visible Implant (VI) tags to monitor their reproductive performance following hormonal induction. All tags were retained after one year; only 5 out of 64 tags were not readable due to improper implantation. The advantages of using VI tags include: less tagging time (less than one minute), high retention rate, longer retention, infection-free, and easily readable.
    • Article

      Use of Acadian marine plant extract powder from Ascophyllum nodosum in tissue culture of Kappaphycus varieties 

      AQ Hurtado, DA Yunque, K Tibubos & AT Critchley - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2009 - Springer Verlag
      Three varieties of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Kapilaran, KAP), Tambalang purple (PUR), Adik-adik (AA), and one variety of Kappaphycus striatum var. sacol (green sacol (GS) were used to determine the efficiency of Acadian marine plant extract powder (AMPEP) as a culture medium at different concentrations, for the regeneration of young plants of Kappaphycus varieties, using tissue culture techniques for the production of seed stock for nursery and outplanting purposes for the commercial cultivation of carrageenophytes. A shorter duration for shoot formation was observed when the explant was treated with AMPEP + Plant Growth Regulator (PGR = PAA + zeatin at 1 mg L−1) compared to AMPEP when used singly. However, four explants responded differently to the number of days required for shoot formation. The KAP variety took 46 days to form shoots at 3–4 mg L−1 AMPEP + PGR; while PUR required 21 days at 3–5 mg L−1 AMPEP and 3–4 mg L−1 AMPEP + PGR. AA required 17 days at 3–5 mg L−1 AMPEP and AMPEP + PGR; and GS 25 days at 1 mg L−1 AMPEP + PGR. It was observed that among the four explants used, PUR and AA initiated shoot formation with the use of AMPEP only at higher concentrations (3–5 mg L−1) after a shorter period. Only PUR responded positively to ESS/2 for shoot initiation. The use of AMPEP alone and/or in combination with PGR as a culture medium in the propagation of microplantlets using tissue culture technique is highly encouraging.
    • Article

      Use of agar-bound microparticulate diet as alternative food for tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina (Linnaeus 1758) post-larvae in large-scale cultures 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, JRH Maquirang, MR de la Peña & VT Balinas - Aquaculture International, 2017 - Springer Verlag
      The efficacy of using agar-bound microparticulate diet (A-MPD) as alternative food for abalone Haliotis asinina Linne post-larvae in large-scale culture was investigated. Larvae sourced from the hatchery-bred (HB) and wild-sourced (WS) broodstock were fed with either diatoms (TMT1-NF), agar-bound microparticulate diet (TMT2-A-MPD), or a combination of both feeds (TMT3-NF + A-MPD) in six 2-m3 tanks replicated over time. Three hundred thousand veliger larvae were stocked/tank containing 80 corrugated plates with mucus trails hanging on bamboo poles. Feeds were given at 0900 h starting at day 3 with seawater flow through introduced every 1400 h starting day 5. Two-way analysis of variance determined significant differences (p < 0.05) in survival and shell length between larval sources and feed types. Tukey’s post hoc test established differences among treatment means. At day 30, survival for HB- and WS-sourced larvae was significantly higher (42%) in TMT3 compared with TMT2 having 35% for HB and 38% for WS (p < 0.05). Larvae fed with TMT1 had significantly lowest survival among the three treatments. Survival at 60 and 90 days did not show significant difference for TMT2 and TMT3 regardless of broodstock source. Post-larval shell growth (90 days), from both sources fed with TMT2 and TMT3, was significantly higher than TMT1 (p < 0.05). Larval performance did not show any significant interactions between HB and WS broodstock. The use of A-MPD alone or in combination may elicit improvement in survival and shell length growth in abalone larvae regardless of larval sources. A-MPD may be used as full or partial replacements to diatoms as alternative food for abalone post-larvae in large-scale culture.
    • Article

      Use of copepod nauplii during early feeding stage of grouper Epinephelus coioides 

      JD Toledo, MS Golez, M Doi & A Ohno - Fisheries Science, 1999 - Japanese Society of Fisheries Science
      Newly-hatched Epinephelus coioides larvae were stocked in five 5-ton tanks at an initial density of 25, 000 ind/tank. Copepod nauplii were propagated in four of these tanks by inoculating various densities (20 to 80 ind/l) of mixed copepodids of Acartia tsuensis, Pseudodiaptomus spp., and Oithona sp. three days before stocking larvae. Rotifers were added in these tanks on Day 7 at an initial density of 5, 000 ind/l. Larvae in the remaining tank were fed rotifers (only) starting Day 2 at 5, 000 ind/l. The feeding incidence, gut content, growth, and survival of larvae were better in tanks with higher density of copepodids (60-80 ind/l). These indices were lowest in larvae given rotifers only. Total n-3 HUFA of copepods was 2 to 3 times higher than rotifers. High percentages of 22:6n-3 (DHA) were detected in the fatty acid composition of Pseudodiaptomus (13%) and Acartia (24%) with DHA/EPA (20:5n-3) values of 1.4 and 2.6, respectively. By providing nauplii of copepods at the early feeding stage, an average survival of 3.4% at harvest (Day 36) was obtained in a pilot scale grouper seed production trial in three 10-ton tanks.
    • Article

      Use of GABA to enhance rotifer reproduction in enrichment culture 

      WG Gallardo, A Hagiwara & TW Snell - Aquaculture Research, 2001 - Blackwell Publishing
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been shown to enhance the reproduction of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis Muller in stressful culture conditions. During the enrichment of rotifers for feeding to marine fish larvae, they are usually stressed as a result of exposure to different marine oils and high population densities. This typically results in decreased rotifer survival, reproduction and swimming activity. In the present study, we used GABA to increase rotifer reproduction and the swimming activity of rotifers in enrichment cultures. GABA treatment 24 h before high density enrichment enhanced reproduction during enrichment culture, but not when carried out simultaneously with enrichment. Swimming activity was not significantly affected by GABA treatment 24 h before or simultaneously with nutrient enrichment.
    • Article

      Use of gonad color in sexing broodstock of Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758). 

      WG Gallardo, MTR de Castro & RT Buensuceso - Veliger, 1992 - California Malacozoological Society, Inc.
      The window pane oyster, Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758), is a highly valuable bivalve species inhabiting the muddy bottom of coastal bays from the Arabian Sea on the west through the Indian Ocean and Malayan Seas to the coast of China on the east (Hornell, 1909). In the Philippines, P. placenta is extensively collected from the wild because of the high demand for its translucent shell, which is fashioned into various articles exported to the United States and Europe. As a result of overharvesting, P. placenta population in some natural beds are already depleted. Therefore, there is a need to conserve this resource through aquaculture. Hatchery techniques should be developed to produce seeds for reseeding and farming purposes.

      At the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD), Placuna placenta has been induced to spawn by water flow manipulation (Young, 1980). Other methods such as the addition of gametes, temperature shock, and salinity shock are presently being tried. With these induced spawning methods, there is a need to have a high degree of certainly as to the sex of the animal being used. Further, it is important that the method of sexing does not involve sacrificing the animal. However, it has been reported that sexes in P. placenta can be determined only by gonad histology. Rosell (1979) stated that male and the female P. placenta, which are dioecious, are distinguishable upon histological examination of the gonads, but they are without apparent sexual dimorphism. Macsuci et al. (1980) reported that the sex of P. placenta cannot be differentiated except by microscopic examination. Nevertheless, if gonad color, as seen through the translucent shell, could be proven to be a highly reliable basis for sexing, then this method would be useful in broodstock selection. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the use of gonad color for sexing P. placenta broodstock.
    • Article

      Use of hormones in breeding cultivated warm-water fishes with special reference to milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal) 

      H Chaudhuri & JV Juario - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1978 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      The role of hormones in the controlled reproduction of a few test fishes is well documented. However, information on the mechanisms of endocrine regulation of ovulation in cultivated warm-water fishes is very meagre. Hormones, especially the gonadotropic hormones of piscine origin, are increasingly being used in modern aquaculture to produce the seed of many important cultivated fishes. While chorionic gonadotropin and other exogenous mammalian hormones are used in spawning the channel catfish, fish pituitary hormones are usually needed to induce spawning in the difficult-to-spawn Asiatic carps. In mullets, however, either homoplastic pituitary gland or human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or a mixture of HCG and a threshold dose of the former is ordinarily injected to precipitate spawning. Of late, semi-purified salmon gonadotropin (SG-G100) has been used to induce spawning in several species of food fishes. While several marine fishes have been artificially bred by administration of hormones, induced spawning of the milkfish, C. chanos has been tried with little success. The milkfish is a widely distributed food fish extensively cultivated in ponds in Southeast Asia. Recently, significant results have been obtained in spawning mature milkfish captured from the wild by hormone injections. The experiments conducted on induced breeding of milkfish leading to the successful fertilization and hatching of milkfish eggs are briefly described.
    • Article

      Use of juvenile instar Diaphanosoma celebensis (Stingelin) in hatchery rearing of Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) 

      MR de la Peña - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2001 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      The effects of size, dry mass intake and nutritional value of the brackishwater cladoceran, Diaphanosoma celebensis, on the growth and survival of 15-30 day sea bass (Lates calcarifer) larvae reared in a static green water system were determined. The highest specific growth rate (29.4%/day) was attained in larvae fed a 1:1 combination of Artemia nauplii and adult Diaphanosoma but it was not significantly different (p>0.05) from fish fed only adult Diaphanosoma (28.8%/day) or only juvenile instar Diaphanosoma (28.6%/day). Survival rates of larvae (92.4-99.0%) fed the different live diets did not significantly differ (p>0.05). Larvae markedly prefered juvenile instar Diaphanosoma over Artemia nauplii and adult Diaphanosoma. The crude protein contents of juvenile Diaphanosoma (58.7%), adult Diaphanosoma (58.3%) and Artemia (56.7%) were substantially high and satisfied the dietary protein requirements of larvae. The fatty acid profile of the sea bass fry reflected the lipid composition of the live diet. Improved growth, survival and dry mass intake in larvae indicate the potential of juvenile Diaphanosoma in the hatchery rearing of sea bass larvae.
    • Article

      Use of kappa-carrageenan microbound diet (C-MBD) as feed for Penaeus monodon larvae 

      MN Bautista, OM Millamena & A Kanazawa - Marine Biology, 1989 - Springer Verlag
      The performance of an artificial practical diet, kappa-carrageenan microbound diet (C-MBD) was assessed on Penaeus monodon larvae at the SEAFDEC Broodstock and Maturation Experimental Laboratory in March 1986. Shrimps were reared from zoea to post-larvae using five dietary treatments: (a) natural food - Chaetoceros calicitrans and Artemia salina ; (b) C-MBD; (c) combination of natural food and C-MBD; (d) commercial diet (microencapsulated, MED); (e) combination of natural food and commercial diet. Results showed slow development with larvae fed the commercial diet. Feeding with C-MBD in combination with natural food resulted in the highest % survival among treatments (69.6), but this was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from those obtained with larvae fed natural food alone, C-MBD alone or their combination.
    • Article

      Use of metaldehyde as a molluscicide in semi-commercial and commercial milkfish ponds 

      RM Coloso, IG Borlongan & RA Blum - Crop Protection, 1998 - Elsevier
      The effect of metaldehyde on brackish water pond snails, Cerithidea cingulata, was tested in 250 m2 ponds, and in semi-commercial and commercial milkfish ponds. The field trials were conducted at three locations, namely Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, Philippines. Three application rates (80, 100, 120 kg(ha) of 10% metaldehyde formulation, an untreated control and a reference standard 25% niclosamide EC (1.0 L/ha) were tested during the dry season in a pond with heavy snail infestation. Seven days after application (DAA), snail mortality rates (86-87%) did not differ significantly among the various metaldehyde treatments but were significantly higher than those in the control (6%) and the reference standard (29%). In the field trials, in heavily infested ponds (more than 2000 snails/m2), a dose of 120 kg/ha was effective under both dry and wet conditions. In moderately infested ponds (less than 2000 snails/m2), a dose of 80 kg/ha of a 10% metaldehyde formulation was effective under dry conditions but a dose of up to 120 kg/ha was needed under wet conditions. In a pond dosed with 120 kg/ha of the 10% metaldehyde formulation, the concentration increased in pond water, until 3 DAA relative to the initial level, indicating that the active ingredient had dissolved from the granules. From day 3, the concentration declined steadily to approx. 16% of the initially detected amount at 15 DAA. In the pond sediment, the metaldehyde concentration steadily declined to approx. 1% of the initially detected amount at 15 DAA. As metaldehyde is rapidly degraded in aquatic systems its efficacy in controlling brackish water pond snails depends on a high initial dosage.
    • Article

      Use of ongrown Artemia in nursery culturing of the tiger shrimp 

      P Dhert, RF Bombeo & P Sorgeloos - Aquaculture International, 1993 - Springer Verlag
      Juvenile and adult Artemia produced in a semi flow-through culture system were used as food for postlarval shrimp. The growth performance of shrimp reared on such ongrown Artemia live prey is identical to the growth obtained when feeding newly hatched Artemia. However, a significantly better stress resistance is obtained when the postlarvae are exposed to a low salinity in a stress test. Besides nutritional and energetic advantages, the use of Artemia biomass for feeding postlarval shrimp also results in improved economics as expenses for cysts and weaning diets can be reduced.
    • Article

      The use of potassium permanganate against trichodiniasis on milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerlings 

      PA Palma, ER Cruz-Lacierda & VL Corre Jr. - Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 2015 - European Association of Fish Pathologists
      Trichodiniasis was noted in an intensive milkfish (Chanos chanos) nursery pond in Dumangas, Iloilo, Philippines. It was predominantly caused by a small trichodinid species (body diameter=23-29 µm) with well-developed denticles, identified as Paratrichodina sp. The trichodinid infection resulted in proliferative changes, including clubbing and epithelial hyperplasis of the gill lamellae sufficient to disrupt respiratory function. Tolerance tests of milkfish fingerlings in an earthen pond-simulated environment resulted in a 24 h TL90 value of 1.98 ± 0.25 ppm KMnO4. A treatment of 1.0 ppm KMnO4 was highly efficacious (96%) in eliminating trichodinids on gills with minimal mortality of treated milkfish observed 24 hours post-treatment.
    • Article

      Use of seaweed meals from Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria heteroclada as binders in diets for juvenile shrimp Penaeus monodon 

      V Dy Peñaflorida & NV Golez - Aquaculture, 1996 - Elsevier
      Two seaweed meals were tested as binders in shrimp diets. In the first study, Kappaphycus alvarezii or Gracilaria heteroclada in dry ground form were added to an isonitrogenous diet at 3, 5, 7 or 10%. The basal diet had 5% corn starch and 5% wheat flour as binders and served as the control diet. A second study used the seaweed meals at 5, 10 or 15% plus 5% wheat flour and a control diet containing 15% wheat flour (no seaweed meal). These two sets of diets were fed to juvenile tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, to assess the acceptability of the seaweed meals in terms of shrimp growth and survival. In both studies, diets with 10% G. heteroclada had the highest water stability after 4 h but differences among diets were minimal. In study 1, shrimp fed diets with 3% and 5% K. alvarezii and 10% G. heteroclada had the highest total biomass and those fed the diet containing 5% K. alvarezii the highest specific growth rate (SGR). Shrimp survival was highest with those fed 3% K. alvarezii and decreased as K. alvarezii was increased. Survival was not affected by the level of G. heteroclada in the diet. Diets with 3% and 5% K. alvarezii had the best feed conversion ratio (FCR). With a modified binder composition in study 2, total biomass and SGR of shrimp fed 10% G. heteroclada did not significantly differ from the control, nor from 10% K. alvarezii and 5% G. heteroclada. Diets with 5% and 10% K. alvarezii or G. heteroclada had the best FCR. Survival was highest among shrimp fed 5% G. heteroclada but was not significantly different from those of the control, 10% G. heteroclada and 10% K. alvarezii groups. Thus, as a supplement for wheat flour, up to 5% K. alvarezii or 10% G. heteroclada meal could be used with no adverse effect on growth. The use of seaweed meals as binder in commercial shrimp diets would minimize organic waste from the feed and would mean an additional market for seaweeds.