Now showing items 58-77 of 79

    • Oral presentation

      Penaeid larval culture using microencapsulated diets. 

      DI Jones - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Whilst it has been possible for many years to feed postlar-val penaeids successfully on artificial diets, problems of nutrient leaching, particle breakdown, and water fouling have prevented the use of such diets for early planktonic larval stages. It has recently been demonstrated that the technique of microencapsulation may be used to overcome these problems. Live foods used for penaeid culture have been successfully replaced by microencapsulated diets, both in the laboratory and at the hatchery level. The technology has now reached the level at which dietary requirements of individual species can be met by the incorporation of specific nutrients. Capsules can be supplied to function either as complete nutrient delivery systems or as food supplements.

      The present paper reviews this progress towards the total replacement of live foods in penaeid culture, and assesses the results of recent culture trials.
    • Oral presentation

      A preliminary economic analysis for extensive and semi-intensive shrimp culture in South Carolina, U.S.A. 

      PA Sandifer & LL Bauer - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      South Carolina has some 28,500 ha of impounded coastal wetlands. These impoundments are remnants of the rice culture industry of the 19th century and are now of interest for waterflow management and possibly aquaculture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the potential for extensive commercial culture of shrimp in salt-marsh impoundments with that for semi-intensive production of shrimp in highland ponds.

      A hypothetical farm consisting of four 8-ha impoundments or ponds was chosen as the basis for the analysis, and it was assumed that only one crop of shrimp could be produced per year. Two alternative strategies for stocking the impoundments were evaluated: option 1, stock by natural recruitment via tide gates; option 2, stock at low density (25,000/ha) with hatchery-reared postlarvae. Highland ponds were to be stocked at a density of 75,000 PL/ha with hatchery-reared animals. Major fixed costs other than land purchase were considered, including renovation of existing impoundments by cross-diking to form 8-ha units and addition of extra tide gates. Estimates of annual and variable costs for postlarvae (where applicable), feed, labor, chemicals, pumping, supplies, vehicle use, mowing, interest, overhead, and miscellaneous items were also included in the analysis. Results indicated that extensive shrimp culture in salt water impoundments is likely to be a break-even or profitable activity for production levels of 90 kg whole shrimp/ha for stocking option 1, while option 2 would require yields of ≥225 kg/ha. In comparison, semi-intensive culture in highland ponds is likely to be successful if yields of ≥ 800 kg/ha are obtained. This preliminary analysis suggests that both extensive and semi-intensive culture of shrimp may be economically feasible in South Carolina, but this potential is as yet un-proven and shrimp aquaculture must be considered a high risk venture in this area.
    • Book | Conference publication

      Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, Iloilo City, Philippines, 4-7 December 1984 

      Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.) - 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Abstracts of the 78 papers presented at the conference are cited individually.
    • Conference poster

      The production economics of an integrated prawn hatchery-floating nursery project. 

      R Agbayani, N Franco, D Israel, D De La Peña & AT Young - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper aims to present an economic evaluation of an integrated prawn (Penaeus monodon) hatchery-floating nursery project using standard economic tools and methods of analysis. The data used in the analysis were taken from SEAFDEC AQD experience at the Batan, Aklan Research Substation hatchery-floating nursery project. The technical bases were gathered from researchers after the peculiarities of aquaculture vis-a-vis other business ventures in agriculture and industry were taken into consideration.

      The study shows that an integrated hatchery-floating nursery project is a profitable culture system. The rate of return on investment for this integrated project ranges from 29 to 47% while payback period ranges from 1.8 to 2.6 years. A separate economic analysis of a hatchery project and a floating nursery was also undertaken to determine the profitability of independently operating each subsystem. The analysis shows better results for the floating nursery subsystem as compared to the hatchery subsystem. Return on investment and payback period for the floating nursery range from 23 to 78% and 1 to 3 years, respectively, while those for the hatchery range from 20 to 36% and 2.3 to 3.7 years, respectively.
    • Conference poster

      Recruitment of postlarval penaeid prawns in the Vellar estuary, South India. 

      Ramasamy A. & AP Pandian - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The northern bank of Vellar estuary (Parangipettai, India) is ideal for postlarval penaeid prawn recruitment. The annual recruitment, distribution and the substratum preference of postlarval immigrants at three different stations in the estuary were studied in detail.

      Among the postlarvae of Penaeus, P. (Fenneropenaeus) indicus was dominant followed by P. (Penaeus) monodon, P. (P.) semisulcatus, P. (F.) merguiensis and P. (Melicertus) latisulcatus. In Metapenaeus, postlarvae of M. monoceros were abundant followed by M. dobsoni, M. affinis, M. bre-vicornis and M. lysianassa.

      Two peaks were observed in the postlarval penaeid prawn population. In P (F.) indicus and P. (P.) monodon, the primary peak occurred from January to April and the secondary peak from July to September. In M. monoceros and M. dobsoni, the primary peak was from March to May and the secondary peak from August to September. The postlarvae of P. (F.) indicus, P. (P.) monodon, M. monoceros and M. dobsoni were available throughout the year while the others were seasonal. The distribution of postlarvae in the estuary is related to the type of substratum, salinity and temperature. The postlarval population declined during the northeast monsoon (November-December) and in peak summer (May-June). Their abundance decreased in the lower salinity areas of the upper reaches of the estuary.
    • Oral presentation

      The response of Penaeus monodon juveniles to varying protein/energy ratios in test diets. 

      M Bautista - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The response of Penaeus monodon juveniles (0.71±0.11 g) to varying protein/energy ratios in test diets was determined. Purified diets consisting of different levels of protein, lipid and carbohydrates were formulated. Two sets of experiments were conducted with the following diet combinations: (1) 30, 30, 50% protein, 5, 10, 15% lipid and 0, 10, 20% carbohydrate and (2) 40, 45, 50% protein, 5% lipid and 20, 25, 30% carbohydrate. Protein and energy ratios ranged from 89-198 mg protein/Kcal while the energy values for all diets were 165-415 Kcal/100 g. The diets were given twice daily at 10% of the body weight.

      Results showed that a two- to three-fold increase was observed in the body weight of prawns fed with diet combinations of 40-50% protein, 5-10% lipid and 20% carbohydrate with energy values of 285-370 Kcal/100 g. Reduction in protein content of the diet from 50 to 40% while maintaining the total energy level (285 Kcal/100 g) resulted in a change in growth that was not significant. An increase in energy level, at constant dietary protein level, resulted in improved utilization of protein and feed conversion efficiency.
    • Conference paper

      A review of maturation and reproduction in closed thelycum penaeids 

      JH Primavera - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Commercially important penaeids of the closed thelycum group belong to five subgenera of the genus Penaeus — Penaeus, Fenneropenaeus, Marsupenaeus and Melicertus that are almost exclusively Indo-West Pacific and Farfantepenaeus that is predominantly Western Atlantic. Since the ablation of Penaeus duorarum more than a decade ago, the first for any penaeid, around 23 species have been matured in captivity, 17 of them belonging to the closed thelycum subgenera (P. aztecus, P. brasiliensis, P. californiensis, P. duorarum, P. esculentus, P. indicus, P. japonicus, P. kerathurus, P. latisulcatus, P. merguiensis, P. monodon, P. notialis, P. orientalis, P. paulensis, P. penicillatus, P. plebejus, and P. semisulcatus).

      The complete spectrum of controlled reproduction in penaeids covers maturation, spawning, hatching of eggs into viable larvae, and the production of postlarvae to constitute the next batch of broodstock. The full closing of the cycle has been achieved in at least six closed thelycum species whereas gaps, e.g. inability of mature females to spawn or nonhatching of eggs, remain for the others.

      Spawners or mature females used in commercial hatcheries and research laboratories are either wild-caught or matured in captivity with human control ranging from nil to a regular closing of the cycle. Wild spawners may be spawned directly after capture and transport or subjected to environmental manipulation, e.g. thermal control to induce or inhibit spawning. Females matured in captivity may come from wild broodstock (adults and subadults caught from estuaries or "sourced" by trawlers from offshore waters) or captive (pond- or tank-reared) broodstock. Introduced or exotic penaeid species must depend on a pond- or tank-reared broodstock whereas indigenous prawns and shrimps may be constituted from wild or captive broodstock.

      There are three basic approaches employed singly or in combination to induce ovarian maturation in penaeids — endocrine, dietary or nutritional and environmental. Endocrine manipulation has so far been synonymous with unilateral eyestalk ablation, a technique with far-reaching impact on penaeid aquaculture. Closed thelycum penaeids may be classified into those that require ablation in order to mature and those that do not. To a third group belong species that have been experimentally induced to mature with and without ablation.

      Diets for maturation include fresh and frozen animal sources (mussel, clam, oyster, squid, marine worms, shrimps, fish) and formulated pellets given in any combination. The choice of marine worms and mollusks is based on their high levels of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, the dominant fatty acids found in mature ovaries and testes. Environmental parameters studied in relation to maturation include light (intensity, quality and photoperiod), temperature, salinity and pH.

      Although a regular closing of the cycle has been achieved for some, the state-of-the-art for most penaeids is the successful production of larvae and postlarvae from either wild spawners or wild immature/spent females matured/rematured in captivity. The improvement of reproductive performance including larval quality from captive broodstock remains a major area for future research and includes the determination of minimum age and size for maturation. The complete description of the nutritional and environmental requirements for maturation should lead to the development of alternatives to ablation such as photoperiod manipulation or the use of reproductive hormones.

      The present focus on characterizing the physicochemical and dietary requirements for maturation should be extended to other phases of reproduction: mating, spawning, fertilization and hatching. Studies on biology (molting, mating, fertilization including the cortical reaction) and biochemistry (maturation stages) provide baseline information for designing maturation tanks and formulating broodstock pellets. Investigations of wild stocks complement laboratory studies in elucidating the interrelationships among molting, mating, maturation and spawning.

      Manual spermatophore transfer is being developed to solve the problem of nonmating in closed (and open) thelycum species. This technique will also be useful in future hybridization work, together with in vitro fertilization.
    • Conference paper

      A review of the diseases of cultured penaeid shrimps and prawns with emphasis on recent discoveries and developments. 

      DV Lightner - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The development of the commercial culture of penaeid shrimps and prawns has been accompanied by the occurrence of diseases of infectious and noninfectious etiologies. Many of the important penaeid diseases are caused by organisms that are part of the normal microflora and fauna of penaeids. These organisms are opportunistic pathogens that cause disease only under conditions that favor them over the host. Many organisms in this category are ubiquitous, and most have been recognized and/or reported from each of the major penaeid culture areas of the world. Included among this category of pathogens are the filamentous bacteria Leucothrix mucor, Flexibacter sp. and Cytophaga sp. (agents of filamentous gill and surface fouling diseases); the peritrich protozoans Zoothamnium sp., Epistylis sp., and Vorticella sp. (surface epibionts that cause protozoan gill disease and surface fouling diseases), the invasive bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus (agents of various bacterial disease syndromes); and the fungi Lagenidium callinectes, Sirolpidium sp., and Fusarium solani (agents of the most common fungus diseases of penaeids).

      Among the most important disease-causing agents are the penaeid viruses. These penaeid viruses may once have been limited in their geographic distribution in wild stocks, but they have become widespread in penaeid culture facilities. With the advent of commercial penaeid hatcheries, the shipment of broodstock and postlarvae from these culture facilities to others in different geographic regions has often resulted in the spread of these agents outside their normal range in wild populations. Included in this category of the penaeid viruses are the baculoviruses: Baculovirus penaei (BP), P. monodon baculovirus (MBV), baculoviral midgut gland necrosis virus (BMN); the hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV); the probable picornavirus infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), and a reo-like virus in P. japonicus.

      The final group of important diseases of cultured penaeids are the nutritional, physical, and toxic disease syndromes. The ascorbic acid deficiency syndrome called "black death" is the best understood nutritional disease of penaeids. Among the physical diseases occurring in penaeid culture, gas bubble disease and tail cramp are probably the most common. Important toxic disease syndromes include aflatoxicosis and red disease (which may be due to mycotoxins); hemocytic enteritis (due to certain species of filamentous blue-green algae, especially Schizothrix calcicola) and toxic syndromes due to toxic algal blooms.

      There are five areas of research that should receive emphasis in the next several years in penaeid disease research: 1) Appropriately equipped laboratories in each of the major penaeid culture areas should identify and catalog those diseases occurring in culture facilities in their region; 2) Penaeid diagnostic laboratories should use, or strive to develop for general use, "standardized" diagnostic procedures whenever possible, especially for highly infectious agents such as the penaeid viruses; 3) Penaeid cell culture methods for primary cultures or cell lines must be developed to aid in the development of much needed rapid, sensitive diagnostic tests for the penaeid viruses; 4) Improved methods of disease prevention, control, or chemotherapy are needed for many of the penaeid diseases now adversely affecting the penaeid culture industry; and 5) Approval is needed from those government agencies (such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency) for the drugs and chemicals used as chemotherapeutics in penaeid culture that may pose a health risk to humans.
    • Oral presentation

      Role of bacteria and meiofauna in the productivity of prawn aquaculture ponds. 

      DJW Moriarty - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Detrital food chains, based on the use of manures and compost have been used in aquaculture for centuries. Heterotrophic bacteria convert organic detritus into protein and thus constitute an important food source in ponds. Bacterial growth rates, and thus productivity, in natural environments can be calculated from the rate of tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA. Rates of oxygen consumption by bacteria can be estimated from values for production. The tritiated thymidine method has been used to measure bacterial production in aquaculture ponds where a pelleted food was fed to penaeid prawns. It was found that most of the pelleted food was supporting bacterial growth, with bacterial production ranging from 0.43 to 2.1 mgCℓ–1d–1 in the water and 150 to 500 mgC m–2d–1 in the sediment. Bacterial biomass and growth rates were shown to be regulated by meiofauna, which in turn were eaten by the prawns. Primary production was not significant in the ponds. More oxygen was consumed by bacteria in the water column than was produced by photosynthesis of phytoplankton.

      Average shrimp yields at harvest were: chicken manure, 262 kg/ha; cow manure, 218 kg/ha; feed, 387 kg/ha; and control, 160 kg/ha. Average survival for each treatment was 50, 76, 58 and 79%, respectively. The percent yield of P. vannamei: P. stylirostris: P. occidentalis by weight for the four treatments was 85:15:0, 87:13:0, 78:22:0, and 92:9:0, respectively. P. occidentalis suffered 100% mortality during the production period. Average weights of shrimp at harvest were 8.72, 7.32, 12.07, and 5.98 g for the respective treatments. Ratios of average individual weights for P. vannamei: P. stylirostris for the treatments were 2.00:1, 1.99:1 and 2.22:1, respectively. Manures and feed significantly increased yield over the control (P< .0002). Feed significantly increased yield over that of the manures (P < .0001); while yields for manures did not differ (P > .05). Survival was not significantly different among treatments (P > .05).
    • Conference poster

      Ruppia maritima and Najas graminea as natural foods for Penaeus monodon juveniles. 

      RQ Gacutan & J Primavera - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Ruppia maritima (kusay-kusay, Hiligaynon) and Najas graminea (digman, Hiligaynon) are macrophytes growing in local brackishwater ponds believed to provide food and shelter to prawns and fishes. Their effect on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon juveniles (PL50; carapace length, 4.01 mm; body weight, 0.053 g) were studied in 80-ℓ glass aquaria. The treatments were: (a) a commercial pellet (40% protein); (b) live Ruppia; (c) decaying Ruppia; (d) live Najas; and (e) decaying Najas. The pellet was offered to satiety (approx. 100% of body weight) twice daily. Live Ruppia and Najas were transplanted in the aquaria using pond soil a week prior to the experiment. Decaying Ruppia and Najas were transferred from ponds. Salinity was maintained at 15 ppt and 50% of the water was changed regularly.

      Highly significant differences (P < 0.01) in mean carapace length (CL) and mean body weight (BW) on the 10th, 20th and 30th days were observed among treatments. Increase in CL was fastest with decaying Najas and slowest in live Ruppia (14% vs. 17% after 30 days). Growth with decaying Ruppia was comparable to pellets on the 10th and 20th days but was faster after 30 days. Body weight on all sampling days was highest in decaying Najas and lowest in live Ruppia. Percentage increases were 122, 273 and 565% on the 10th, 20th and 30th days, respectively, with decaying Najas. Those given live Ruppia registered increases of 11, 67 and 94%, respectively. The rapid growth rate of animals on decaying Najas was compensated negatively by a low survival rate (31%), significantly lower than on live Najas (100%). Other survival percentages were: decaying Ruppia, 59% and pellet, 53%.
    • Conference poster

      Seasonal abundance of Penaeid prawn seed in the Ennore estuary, Madras in relation to hydrography and lunar phase. 

      S Vasudevan & T Subramoniam - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      An estimate of seed resources in the coastline, estuarine, and backwater bodies is an important prerequisite for developing prawn farming. A one-year (1983) survey on penaeid seed, based on tide and lunar periodicity, indicates the following species: Metapenaeus dobsoni, Penaeus indicus, P. japonicus, M. monoceros, P. semisulcatus and P. monodon in order of their abundance. P. indicus and P. japonicus are predominant in February and March (77.5 and 82.06% of total seed, respectively) when the average salinity ranges from 33.6 to 35.1 ppt followed by M. dobsoni. A second peak of P. indicus is observed in June when M. dobsoni showed its highest peak (47.35%) with continued abundance up to December.

      During the northeast monsoon, when the average salinity fell to a lower range of 19.9 to 24.6 ppt, P. monodon and M. monoceros showed moderate abundance. As the site chosen is very near the bar mouth, most of the seed collected were postlarvae. In Penaeus and Metapenaeus genera, total size range is 7-15 mm and 3-4 mm, respectively. Afternoon collections showed greater abundance followed by forenoon and night collections. Low tide and Full Moon collections showed greater abundance than those made during high tide and New Moon. Differences in seasonality may reflect breeding intensity of the respective prawn species in the sea. Variations in hydrographic features may also significantly contribute to seasonal abundance. A strong correlation between salinity and seed abundance is seen. The seed potential of these prawns in Ennore estuary is discussed.
    • Conference poster

      Seasonal and local occurrence of adults and postlarval stages of Penaeus merguiensis and Penaeus indicus in Batan bay, Philippines. 

      VC Bañada - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Studies on seasonal and local occurrence of adults (spawners) and postlarval stages of Penaeus merguiensis and P. indicus in Batan Bay and Banate Bay, Aklan yielded the following results: 1) small-sized P. merguiensis and P. indicus dominated the rivers and interior bays, 2) P. merguiensis and P. indicus spawners appeared throughout the year with varying monthly abundance in Batan Channel and Banate shoreline, and 3) larval stages of penaeids were found in interior bays but were more abundant in the channel and offshore areas. Postlarval stages of penaeids are more abundant along the shoreline than in water edges of mangrove swamps which indicate that channels and offshore waters may be primary spawning grounds while interior bays and rivers are secondary spawning grounds. Moreover, size distribution of carapace length of P. merguiensis suggests that the channel and offshore areas are utilized as primary spawning grounds while the inner portions of the bay are nursery grounds and secondary spawning grounds.

      Lunar phase did not show a positive correlation with abundance of both spawners and postlarval P. merguiensis and P. indicus. The minimum size at sexual maturity for both male and female P. merguiensis is about 11 mm CL. Female P. indicus appear to become sexually mature at a smaller size (13 mm CL) than males (20 mm CL).
    • Conference poster

      Staggered harvesting as a method of increasing prawn production with supplemental feeding. 

      M Suemitsu, M Dimaano, E Jarabejo & JJ Canto - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Prawns, like any other animals, exhibit dissimilarities in growth rates. As they grow, a wide range of body weight distribution from the same population is observed. Staggered harvesting method is commonly practised in cultured animals having this characteristic. Selective or partial harvesting is especially useful in this type of management system. In this case, the larger shrimps are caught earlier than the small ones thus giving chance for the smaller ones to grow bigger.

      The study was conducted in four one-ha ponds. Recommended pond preparation was followed. Partial harvesting was employed in experimental ponds by using 2-4 units of 8 knots selective pound nets once a week commencing after three months culture until final harvest. Control ponds were harvested only once at the end of the culture period.

      The results show a mean production value of 506 kg from control ponds and 639 kg from experimental ponds. Average survival rate for experimental ponds was higher (92.90%) than for control (77.65%). Final average body weight was higher for experimental ponds (21.8 g) than for control (20.5 g).

      Size-wise, production of big size group (30-35 g) is 578.0 kg compared to 434.6 kg for small size group (13.1-13.4 g) from both control ponds with over-all production of 1,012.6 kg. On the other hand, production from the two experimental ponds for big and small size groups is 872.2 and 405.8 kg, respectively. The means of the total weights of marketable size Penaeus monodon from control and experimental ponds are 289.0 and 436.1 kg, respectively. That is, 43.5% of the stock reached marketable size in ponds with staggered/partial harvest method compared to only 27.5% from control ponds.
    • Oral presentation

      Studies on the artificial insemination and fertilization of grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. 

      MN Lin & YY Ting - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The culture of grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon has become a fast-growing enterprise in Taiwan since formulated shrimp feed was successfully developed in 1978. In 1983, the total postlarval production for stocking reached 600 million at the price of 12.5 U.S. cents each. This high price of the postlarvae resulted from (1) limited availability of wild gravid females, (2) undesirable spawnings obtained by using the method of eyestalk ablation, manifested by a low average hatching rate of 20%, and (3) high demand from grow-out farms. The eyestalk ablated females induced to spawn were often found unmated which partly explained the poor spawnings and low hatching rates. Consequently, re-use of ablated females was not practised by farmers in the past.

      The present paper describes the results of artificial insemination and fertilization of wild or pond-reared females whose gonadal development was induced by eyestalk ablation. The hatching rates from unmated soft-thelycum females implanted with two spermatophores are 84.7% and 43.7% while those implanted with only one spermatophore, 74.1% and 16.8%, for the first and subsequent spawning, respectively. These results positively confirm that the unmated condition of ablated females is the main reason for low hatching. Through artificial insemination, the spawning and hatching can be improved and ablated females can be re-utilized. For unmated hard-thelycum females, artificial fertilization was done by releasing spermatozoa into the spawning tank right before spawning. Out of 15 attempts, three were successful with hatching rates of 63.1, 52.3, and 49.9%.

      Induced maturation of pond-reared shrimps was attempted by manipulation of temperature and salinity. Under constant temperature of 22±2°C, salinities ranging between 25 and 37 ppt were experimented. The best results with 67% success were obtained at salinities of 30 and 35 ppt. Continued efforts will be made to improve spawning performance through the technique of artificial insemination under controlled conditions.
    • Conference poster

      Study on the larval rearing of Penaeus merguiensis. 

      N Ruangpanit, S Maneewongsa, T Tattanon & P Kraisingdeja - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Nursing postlarvae of Penaeus merguiensis in the same tank as rearing always results in low survival rates, around 30%. One reason is that stocking density for P1 is too high for postlarvae grown to P20 size. Another reason may be that it is impossible to sufficiently clean a tank containing culture stock. In order to overcome the first constraint and to test whether the second is valid, rearing of nauplii to early postlarval stage was done in one tank, then early postlarvae were moved to another tank for nursing to P20.

      Rearing was done in rectangular, concrete tanks (5 m × 5 m × 2m) of 50 ton capacity, with an initial stocking density of 20-40 nauplii/ℓ. Chaetoceros sp. at a density of 3-4 × 104 cell/ml, or Tetraselmis sp. at 1-3 × 104 cell/ml were fed to zoea stage, then rotifer was given when the larvae metamorphosed to mysis stage. Within 8-10 days, when all of the larvae metamorphosed to postlarval stage, they were transferred to the nursing tank. Postlarval nursing was done in rectangular, concrete tanks with a capacity of 12 or 30 tons. The stocking rate was 12 postlarvae/ℓ in the 12-ton tanks and 8 postlarvae/ℓ in the 30-ton tanks. The early postlarvae were fed constantly with brine shrimp, and the older postlarvae were fed 4-5 times daily with squid meat. Fifty to seventy percent of seawater was exchanged, and siphoning of food remnants was done daily. The postlarvae grew to an intermediate size (1.0-2.5 cm total length) for stocking in grow-out ponds within 12 to 20 days.

      The results of rearing in 50-ton tanks with an initial stocking density of 20-25 postlarvae/ℓ, 25-30 postlarvae/ℓ and 30-40 postlarvae/ℓ produced survival rates of 74.3%, 63.6% and 47.6%, respectively. The survival rate for nursing in 12-ton tanks, with stocking density of 12 postlarvae/ℓ was 85.0% and for 30-ton tanks with stocking density of 8 postlarvae/ℓ was 61.7%. These results seem to indicate that the rearing and nursing of shrimp would be more efficient if carried out in separate tanks.
    • Conference poster

      Survival, growth and production of white shrimp Penaeus indicus in brackishwater ponds. 

      FD Apud, D Javellana & R Jomen - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This study was conducted in 4 one-ha ponds, 70-100 cm deep and 2 two-ha ponds, 40-70 cm deep to evaluate the survival, growth and production of white shrimp, Penaeus indicus stocked at 50,000/ha and cultured within a period of 90 days with supplementary feeding.

      It was observed that mean survival and yield per ha obtained were significantly higher in deeper ponds, 70.36% and 343.2 kg/ha, respectively, compared with those in shallow ponds, 37.50% and 180 kg/ha, respectively (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in mean body weight at harvest for deep ponds (9.80 g) and shallow ponds (9.55 g). Results suggest that white shrimp production is better in deeper ponds than in shallow ponds.
    • Oral presentation

      Thermal tolerance of larval greentail prawn Metapenaeus bennettae (Raced and Dall) a comparison with school prawn Metapenaeus macleayi. 

      T Murai - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The thermal tolerance of four larval stages of Metapenaeus bennettae was studied in the laboratory. Critical Thermal Maximum (CTM), One hour Median Lethal Temperature (lhLT50), and Median Resistance Time (MRT) were measured. Moulting rate of larvae and hatching rate of embryos were also monitored to study the delayed effect of thermal stress.

      Thermal tolerance was shown to be strongly dependent on acclimation temperature (TA) at all larval stages,which showed ontogenetic development of thermal resistance. Moulting of larvae was hindered at temperatures (37.2°C for nauplius when TA=25°C) well below lhLT50 (38.1°C for nauplius when TA=25°C). The embryonic stages were more susceptible to thermal stress than the larval stages. The salinity effects were also significant. Nauplius and protozoea stages showed their highest CTM values at the salinity in which they were spawned.When compared with another penaeid M. macleayi (offshore breeder), M. bennettae (estuarine breeder) was found to have higher thermal resistance, but was less adaptive to changes in acclimation temperature.
    • Conference poster

      The tolerance of Penaeus monodon eggs and larvae to fungicides against Lagenidium sp. and Haliphthoros philippinensis. 

      GL Po & E Sanvictores - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The in vivo effect of mycostatic levels of fungicides against the fungi Lagenidium sp. and Haliphthoros sp. were tested on Penaeus monodon eggs and larvae. Hatching rate and survival of nauplii, zoeae, myses and postlarvae exposed to 10 mg/ℓ Benzalkonium chloride, 1 mg/ℓ Clotrimazole, 1 mg/ℓ Crystal Violet, 10 mg/ℓ 2,4-D, 10 mg/ℓ Daconil, 20 mg/ℓ laundry detergent, 1 mg/ℓ Econazole nitrate, 10 mg/ℓ Resiguard, 0.2 mg/ℓ and 10 mg/ℓ Treflan-R, 0.01 mg/ℓ and 0.2 mg/ℓ Trifluralin were monitored daily for 96 hr in a static bioassay in glass aquaria. Results showed that all test chemicals had no inhibitory effect on hatching rate but survival rate of hatched nauplii was significantly reduced in most treatments except that of 0.2 mg/ℓ Treflan-R. Tests with zoeae, myses and postlarvae indicated that 0.2 mg/ℓ Treflan-R and 0.01 mg/ℓ and 0.2 mg/ℓ Trifluralin did not adversely affect survival. In addition, Benzalkonium chloride caused no significant mortalities among exposed myses.
    • Conference poster

      The use of haptophyceae in rearing experiments on larval Penaeus orientalis. 

      MR Li, BZ Bian, L Ma & L Ma - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The food value of five clones of Haptophyceae, Coccolithus pelagicus, Dicrateria zhanjiangensis, Isochrysis galbana, Tahitian Isochrysis aff. galbana, and Pseudoisochrysis paradoxa were tested for larval Penaeus orientalis. The algae were semi-continuously cultured in 5,000 ml carboys with 4,000 ml of Guillard f/2 medium, under 2,000 lux continuous light and under aeration. The algal density was up to 1 × 107 cell/ml. Rearing experiments were conducted in round tanks with diameter of 45 cm. Algal density was controlled at 1 × 105 cell/ml in the course of the experiments. The larval density was 18 individual/100 ml; water temperature, 21-24°C; pH, 7.5-7.7; and sea water specific gravity, 1.019.

      The results showed that of five clones used, Tahitian I. aff. galbana and D. zhangjiangensis proved to be the best. It took 9-11 days for nauplius I to develop into mysis I with survival rate of 73.5% and 73.4%, respectively.
    • Oral presentation

      The use of microencapsulated feeds to replace live food organisms in shrimp hatcheries. 

      ED Scura, J Fischer & MP Yunker - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      An adequate supply of hatchery produced shrimp fry is the major constraint to the intensification and growth of shrimp culture practices. If even 20% of the more than 500,000 ha of the world's existing tropical and sub-tropical brackishwater ponds were to stock at the relatively low density of 50,000 fry/ha/year, it would take thousands of new hatcheries to produce the 25 billion fry required. The availability of artificially produced diets to replace cultured live food organisms would alleviate many of the problems currently limiting shrimp hatchery production by: (i) reducing the level of technical skill required to operate a hatchery; (ii) assuring a reliable supply of a nutritionally balanced larval feed; (iii) reducing sources of contamination and larval disease; and (iv) simplifying hatchery design and capital cost requirements, thereby facilitating small scale hatchery development.

      Aquatic farms has been working with the Mars Microencapsulation Research Group (MMRG) to develop techniques for adapting current shrimp hatchery technology and design so that MMRG feeds can be used in existing hatcheries as a live feed replacement. Feeding trials have been conducted in commercial hatcheries in Hawaii, Malaysia and Thailand. The results of these trials and the techniques employed are discussed. Growth and survival of larvae fed microencapsulated diets as total or partial replacement of live foods was comparable to larvae cultured in control tanks using the standard operating procedures of the hatchery in which the trials were conducted. In trials to date, larval survival from nauplii to postlarvae has been as high as 70%.