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    • Conference paper

      Coastal aquaculture in Thailand 

      S Tookwinas, N Srichantulk & C Choongan - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The coastal area has been explored for aquaculture and coastal aquaculture has expanded quite rapidly in Thailand. The economically important culture species are shrimp (Penaeus monodon), sea bass (Lates calcarifer), and two species of grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus and L. salmoides). The area for marine shrimp culture in 1989 was around 78,209 hectares with a production of 100,000 tons. Approximately 40% of these ponds, by area, is under intensive shrimp cultivation. The average survival rate was reported to be 40-80% with a production of 6 tons per hectare. Sea bass and grouper are mainly cultured in cages. Two cage sizes are used: 10 x 10 x 2 and 5 x 5 x 2 meters. In 1988, the production was about 1,034 and 357 tons for sea bass and grouper, respectively.
    • Conference paper

      Seafarming and searanching in Thailand 

      P Sungkasem & S Tookwinas - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Seafarming is undertaken in the coastal sublittoral zone. Different marine organisms such as molluscs, estuarine fishes, shrimps (pen culture), and seaweeds are cultured along the coast of Thailand. Seafarming, especially for mollusc, is the main activity in Thailand. The important species are blood cockle, oyster, green mussel, and pearl oyster. In 1988, production was approximately 51,000 metric tons in a culture area of 2,252 hectares.Artificial reefs have been constructed in Thailand since 1987 to enhance coastal habitats. Larvae of marine organisms have also been restocked in the artificial reef area.