Now showing items 1-20 of 3180

    • Book

      First annual report of the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) for the fiscal year ending December 31, 1973. 

      SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department - 1974 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      An illustrated account is presented, covering background (establishment of the department), plan of operation (functions; activities), project site development (Leganes Station, Tigbauan Station, construction of buildings, infrastructure development), research (prawn fry stocking, collection of prawn spawners, research staffing, research tie-up with Mindanao State University, Japanese fisheries experts), equipment (preparation of the list of Japanese donated equipment), organization of the department, funding.
    • Book

      Annual report 1974 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - 1975 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      The 1974 report describes the development of project sites at Tigbauan and Leganes, where new ponds and labs have been established. The facilities of these labs include covered and open ponds, wet and field labs, a food preparation building, as well as dormitories and housing units. A substation is now operating at Nueva Valencia, investigating the life cycle of tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, and 5 further substations also exist. Organisational aspects are described, covering scientific staff, equipment, funding etc. The Department s activities are described in detail; these are mainly concerned with shellfish culture and the associated problems. Notes are included on the First Aquaculture Research Conference (April 1974)and 7th SEAFDEC Council Meeting (Dec 1974). Finally, the new and continuing research projects to be conducted during 1975 are listed.
    • Book

      Annual report 1975 

      Anon. - 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Book

      Manual of operations : sugpo pond culture 

      JH Primavera & FD Apud - 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 2
      This manual is intended for fish farmers, extension workers and others in their initial efforts to produce marketable sugpo (Penaeus monodon) for local consumption or export. Information is presented on pond preparation, stocking, transfer from nursery to rearing pond, rearing, harvesting, processing and transport. Appendices deal with the control of pests and predators, diseases, fertilization, and the estimation of rate of supplementary feeding.
    • Article

      Effect of different stocking densities on survival and growth of sugpo (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) in a milkfish-rearing pond 

      JH Primavera, FD Apud & C Usigan - Philippine Journal of Science, 1976 - STII-DOST
      Employing a direct stocking monoculture method, postlarval P. monodon were stocked in 8 compartments of a shallow milkfish rearing pond at densities of 1, 2, 3 and 4/sq m with replicates. Feeding was exclusively natural (microbenthic lablab and plankton); Chanos fingerlings were later introduced to control excessive growth of lablab. Measurements of temperature, DO, pH, salinity and alkalinity were taken daily; stock sampling of length and weight was done every 30 days. Halfway through the culture period, the nylon net separating the compartments was accidentally lifted thereby invalidating data for 5 of the compartments. The prawns were harvested after 5.5 months. Survival was approximately the same for all stocking rates (51.76% at 4/sq m; 50.20% at 2/sq m; 42.54% at 1/sq m and 49.75% for the five remaining compartments treated as one). Growth rates are less conclusive due to the paucity of data. Effects of such physiochemical conditions as high and shallow depth are discussed.
    • Article

      A simple method of tagging prawns 

      LM Rodriguez - Natural and Applied Science Bulletin, 1976 - University of the Philippines
      The recognition of individual animals is crucial to many aspects of research. Prawns present unique difficulties in this respect since they molt regularly. Thus almost all tagging and marking methods developed for prawns so far have proven inadequate. Some are lost during molting; others cause injury to the prawns. A new and efficient method has been developed at the Igang Sea Farming Station of the Aquaculture Department.

      Brass tags measuring 5 mm by 20 mm and numbered consecutively are encircled around the eyestalk like a small bracelet. The prawn is gently held at the base of the carapace by the left hand while the right hand slips the brass tag over the eye. The tag is gently pressed around the eyestalk to prevent its slipping out. All tagging is done under water to avoid stress.
    • Article

      Larvae of decapod crustacea of the Philippines - I. The zoeal stages of a swimming crab, Charybdis cruciata (Herbst) reared in the laboratory 

      H Motoh & AC Villaluz - Nippon Suisan Gakkai Shi. Bulletin Of The Japanese Society Of Scientific Fisheries, 1976 - The Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries
      Six zoeal stages of Charybdis cruciata (Herbst) which are reared in the laboratory, are described. The zoea has a rostral, a dorsal and a pair of laterial spines. There are a pair of lateral hooks on the 2nd and 3rd abdominal segments. The number of natatory hairs on the rirst and second maxillipeds increased by one pair at each molt, being 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14, in the 1st to 6th zoea, respectively. The number of inner setae on the telson are 3+3 in stage 1; 4+4 in stages 2 and 3, 4+1+4 in stage 4, and 5+5 in stages 5 and 6. Spinal arrangement form proximal to distal segment of the endopodite of the first maxillipeds are 2-2-0-2-5 in stages 1-3 and 2-2-1-2-6 in stages 4-6 and that of the second maxillipeds are 1-1-4 in stages 1 and 2 and 1-1-5 in stages 3-6.
    • Technical Report

      Development of a brood stock of the jumbo tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon Fabricius 

      AC Santiago Jr., L Rodriguez, R Mateo & R Obregon - 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Technical report / SEAFDEC. Aquaculture Department; No. 1
      The full-scale cultivation of sugpo, P. monodon Fabricius, could only be realized if there is an assurance of continuous supply of fry. Obviously, a steady supply will depend largely on the availability of spawners. In December 1975, roughly after 2 1/2 years of intensive study, for the first time in the world, SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department has succeeded in inducing P. monodon to mature and produce normally the first generation of postlarval fry, thereby successfully effecting the completion of P. monodon's life cycle while in captivity. Another significant study the Department has initially carried out which could help augment and stabilize the supply of spawners and eventually stimulate the establishment of more prawn hatcheries and the development of ponds for prawn culture as a major export-oriented, dollar-earning industry, is the possible development of ovarian rematuration of spent spawners.
    • Article

      Induction of maturity and spawning in Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, by unilateral eyestalk ablation (Decapoda, Natantia) 

      RG Wear & AC Santiago Jr. - Crustaceana, 1976 - Brill Academic Publishers
      Preliminary experiments carried out at the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre in the Philippines have achieved success in the rearing of viable F1 postlarvae of Penaeus monodon from pond reared stocks. Unilateral eyestalk ablation was carried out on 100 female. 7 of these had successfully spawned at 23-months. Egg numbers up to 355,000 per female and successful hatch rates of up to 81% wee obtained. Bilaterally ablated female suffered total mortality by 196 days from eyestalk removal without 1 recorded spawning. Similarly, no spawnings were obtained from unablated controls. It is difficult to determine whether success can be solely attributed to unilateral ablation, or whether a fortuitous choice of experimental site played some major role. In any case, the data obtained are a valuable guide for future work aimed at propagating P.monodon commercially under fully controlled conditions.
    • Article

      Pond culture of sugpo, P. monodon (Fabricius). 

      JH Primavera & FD Apud - The Philippine Journal of Fisheries, 1976 - BFAR
      A resume is presented of the practical considerations involved in establishing a sugpo pond culture operation, as a guide to fish farmers, extension workers and others interested in producing marketable sugpo in the Philippines. In addition to outlining the general biology of P.monodon , information is given for pond preparation, stocking, transfer from nursery pond to rearing pond, rearing, harvesting, processing and transport. A large appendix deals with the control of pests, predators and diseases, fertilisation and supplementary feeding, and incorporates an illustrated manual of operations.
    • Article

      The larval stages of benizuwai-gani, Chinoecetes japonicus Rathbun reared in the laboratory 

      H Motoh - Nippon Suisan Gakkai Shi. Bulletin Of The Japanese Society Of Scientific Fisheries, 1976 - The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science
      This study deals with the larval stages of C. japonicus, and with the comparison with those of Zuwaigani, C. opilio. There are 2 zoneae and 1 megalopa. The larval stages of C. japonicus are morphologically similar to those of C. opilio excepting some characters as follows: (1) Chromatophores of Zoeae and megalopa are vermillion or crimson in C. japonicus and brown or reddish in C. opilio. (2) C. japonicus is generally bigger than C. opilio in zoeae and megalopa. (3) Length of postero-lateral spine on 3rd abdominal segment is>1.3times the length of the 4th abdominal segment in C. japonicus, but is shorter than (rarely equal to) that in C. opilio. (4) Ischiopodite of cheliped has no spine in C. japonicus, but it has a spine in C. opilio, in megalopa.
    • Article

      Note: larvae of decapod crustacea of the Philippines. II. Laboratory-hatched first zoea of box crab 

      H Motoh - The Philippine Agriculturist, 1976 - College of Agriculture and Central Experiment Station, University of the Philippines at Los Baños
      This is the first report in the world on the characters of the first zoea of Calappa philargius under laboratory conditions. The zoea has a rostral, a dorsal and a pair of lateral spines on the carapace. The average length of larvae from tip of rostral to tip of dorsal spine is 1.26 mm, width, including both lateral spines, 0.74 mm and that of distance between outer margins of eyes, 0.47 mm. There are a pair of lateral hooks on the second and third abdominal segments. There are four natatory hairs on the first and second maxillipeds. Spinal arrangements on the endopodites of the first and second maxillipeds from proximal to distal segment are 2-1-0-2-5 (or 4) and 1-1-4 (or 3), respectively. The number of inner setae on the telson is six (3+3).
    • Article

      Notes on the external sex characters of Chanos chanos (Forskal) spawners 

      H Chaudhuri, JV Juario, R Samson & LB Tiro - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1976 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      In the present study, no visible differences between the sexes of C. chanos with reference to external features such as colouration, shape of head, snout and operculum, presence of tubercles or nasal pores, length, size and shape as well as any roughness in the various fins, could be found. However, the anal region of the mature milkfish (sabalo) exhibits discernible anatomical differences in the male and female. The male has two main openings visible externally: the anterior anus and the posterior urogenital opening at the tip of the urogenital papilla. The female has three main openings instead of two: the anteriormost anus, followed by the genital pore and the urinary pore located posterior to the genital pore at the tip of the urogenital papilla. Internal examinations were also made on both sexes. In ripe sabalo, it is easier to distinguish the sexes since milk oozes out of the urogenital pore by pressing the abdomen of the ripe male fish. Gravid females are identified by their distended abdomens.
    • Article

      Survival rates of different Penaeus monodon Fabricius postlarval stages 

      JH Primavera - Philippine Journal of Science, 1976 - National Science Development Board
      Four different postlarval stages (P11, P15 , P21, and P25) of P. monodon were stocked in suspension nets at the rate of 200 fry/sq m with 3 nets for each postlarval stage. Pond bottom was simulated by filling each net with a 15 cm layer of mud; dried twigs were provided for protection of the fry. Feeding with lablab and determination of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity and alkalinity were regularly undertaken. Results show higher survival rates for P15 and P18 compared to the other stages.
    • Technical Report

      An annotated list of scientific and english common names of commercially important penaeid prawns and shrimps. 

      H Motoh - 1977 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      Series: Technical report / SEAFDEC. Aquaculture Department; No. 2
      There are 318 species of penaeid shrimps (Family Penaeidae) recorded in the world, of which about 80 species are placed under exploitation in fishing industry and/or cultivated artificially. The species under the genus Penaeus are particularly favored for human consumption because of their larger size and palatability and are therefore exposed to extensive capture by fishing boats. The shrimp fishing industry has developed in various parts of coastal waters worldwide extending from the temperate to tropical zones in both hemispheres. The nations engaged in shrimp fishing are numerous; Japan, U.S.A., Mexico, Thailand, India, lead in terms of volume of catch. Japan, for instance one of the large shrimp consuming nations in the world, has been dispatching shrimp fishing boats to many countries whether on her own capital or in joint ventures. Japan annually imports some 100,000 tons of frozen shrimp of which penaeids rank first in quantity. Meanwhile, the demand for shrimp is expected to rise in the years to come.

      The shrimp fishing industry and its operation are conducted and managed naturally, as indicated above, under international agreement. However, confusions arise particularly regarding the common names of shrimp caught or the products. It is evident that many commercial species of penaeids are given common names which differ from one country to another. For instance, the so-called "white shrimp" adopted by commercial circles includes nine different species. Understandably, these nine species, aside form being closely related biologically, are characterized by whitish coloration of the body.

      The present list was compiled to show the status of shrimp nomenclature, based on available literature, giving scientific names and English common names adopted or applied. The present article is written in the hope that the common names of penaeid shrimp shall be standardized internationally at least in English. Needless to say, the standardization will contribute greatly to world trading, as well as to scientific studies.
    • Article

      Identification and culture of common diatoms as possible feed for Penaeus monodon 

      T Pimoljinda - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      Diatoms were collected from Buyuan Bay, and from the hatchery tanks at Tigbauan, to determine the commonly occurring species, the feasibility of culturing these species, and the potential of these selected species as food for larval P. monodon. The commonly occurring diatoms were identified as Chaetoceros calcitrans, Navicula grimmei, Nitzchia seriata, Nitzchia closterium and Amphiprora sp. These diatoms were isolated and unialgal cultures prepared. Protein content analysis using the micro-Kjildahl method gave the following result: C. calcitrans, 11 . 78%; Nitzchia seriata, 25%; Nitzchia closterium, 30 . 5%; Navicula grimmei, 9 . 06% and Amphiprora sp. 8 . 96%.

      Feeding experiments were conducted to determine acceptability of the different diatom species and percentage survival of larval stages Z1 - M2. Larvae were placed in 4-l capacity plastic containers with a stocking density of 10/l. The results of several feeding trials using the different mass-produced diatoms are summarized.

      From the data gathered, C. calcitrans appears to be the most promising candidate as feed for zoea and mysis stages of P. monodon. The average percentage survival of C. calcitrans was 63 . 76% for the 3 trials, and as high as 82 . 22% in the third trial. Comparatively high percentage survival of larvae was also recorded when Nitzchia seriata (48 . 17%) and Nitzchia closterium (67 . 6%) were given as feed, while both Amphiprora sp. and Navicula grimmei gave 0% survival. The poor results with Amphiprora sp. and Navicula grimmei may be due to their low protein content (8 . 96% and 9 . 06%, respectively) and the inability of the larvae to ingest them. Navicula and Amphiprora were observed to cling to the appendages of the larvae and to settle down in the medium making them unavailable to the larvae. Low survival was also noted when frozen C. calcitrans was used (14 . 25%). This may be due partly to the effect of the floculating agent (ALSO4.25 g/l) used in concentrating the diatoms.

      When protein contents of C. calcitrans, N. seriata and N. closterium are compared, the 2 Nitzchia species have relatively higher protein contents than C. calcitrans and, therefore, could be the more desirable feed candidates. However, few feeding trials were made using Nitzchia so that additional investigations will have to be done on this aspect.
    • Article

      Bacteria from seawater used in Penaeus monodon larval cultures 

      AT Llobrera & RQ Gacutan - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      Bacteria in the seawater used in P. monodon hatchery operations were isolated on Bachmann's agar. The total plate counts in 25 isolations ranged from 1.0 - 5.0 x 102 to 5.1 -10.0 x 105 cells per ml. Out of 124 isolates, 98 (79 percent) were Gram-positive and 26 (21 percent) were Gram-negative. Micrococcus and Staphylococcus were dominant in the former group, while Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Flavobacterium and Alcaligenes were most numerous in the latter. Twenty-nine of the Gram-positive isolates closely resembled Peptostreptococcus, Planococcus, and Pediococcus.
    • Article

      Reduction in Chaetoceros populations by furanace 

      MCL Baticados & RQ Gacutan - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      One of the most promising prophylactic agents being tested to control Penaeus monodon larval diseases is furanace (6-hydroxymethyl-2 2(5-nitro-2-furyl) vinyl pyridine). To evaluate further its suitability as a chemotherapeutic agent, its effects on the population growth of Chaetoceros calcitrans, the diatom used as feed for the zoeal stages, was examined. Chaetoceros populations of uniform density (initial density in all runs: 130-141x10 -3 cells /ml) were placed in nine white, circular (382 sq cm), plastic basins. The physio-chemical characteristics of the culture water were as follows: salinity, 28 . 5-30 . 0 ppt; pH, 8 . 62-8 . 72; temperature, 23-25 . 5 degree C; dissolved oxygen, 7 . 1-9 . 3 ppm; nitrate, 0 . 03-0 . 07 ppm; and ammonia, 0 . 005-0 . 03 ppm. Preweighed furanace granules were dissolved in the culture water, with resulting concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/l (3 replicates each). A set of replicates without furanace served as the control. Population counts of the diatom were taken after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hr exposures. After 4 hr, the population decreased in all three levels. The population in 2 mg/l furanace showed the lowest count and that in control the highest. The population means are not statistically different from one another. The results of the study show that the furanace causes reductions in Chaetoceros population at all durations of exposure.
    • Book

      Annual report 1976 

      Anon. - 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Survival rates of different postlarval stages of Penaeus monodon Fabricius 

      JH Primavera - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      The objective of this study is to determine survival rates of different postlarval stages upon stocking in the Leganes ponds. Twelve 3m x 2m x 2m suspension nets made of nylon cloth (mesh size = 0.1 mm) were set up in a Leganes Station pond (ave. water depth = 1 m) by means of 3-m long poles stacked at distances approximating the area of each net. The net bottom was filled with topsoil at least 15 cm thick to stimulate the pond bottom. At least 60 cm of the upper edge of each net was above the water level to prevent mixing of water inside and outside the net. P. monodon of stages P11, P15, P21 (from the hatchery) and P25 (from the wet lab) were stocked in the nets at 200/sq m or 1,200 fry/net. Due to lack of fry, only one P25 net was stocked. Each net had two large dried miapi branches as shelter from predation and cannibalism for the young sugpo fry. Fresh lablab was fed at the rate of one pail (approximately 5 kg) every four days per net. Harvest data show relatively higher survival rates for P15 and P18 compared to P11 and P25 with no significant difference between these two stages. The results for P25 may not be valid because the stock came from the wet lab in comparison to the other postlarval stages which were reared in the hatchery. Moreover, the P25 stock had no replicates and the net itself (no. 10) was discovered to have many holes. These preliminary results point to P15 as the best stage for harvest from the hatchery in terms of high pond recovery and lesser expense in rearing compared to older postlarvae.