Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department Institutional Repository (SAIR) is the official digital repository of scholarly and research information of the department. This is to enable the effective dissemination of AQD researchers' in-house and external publications for free and online. The repository uses DSpace, an open source software, developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Libraries. It is an Open Archives Initiative (OAI)-compliant.

Initially, the repository shall contain preprints, full-texts or abstracts of journal articles, books and conference proceedings written by SEAFDEC/AQD scientists and researchers. The aim is to promote these publications especially those published in international peer-reviewed journals and generate higher citation through increased visibility.

It will also provide free access to all in-house publications of SEAFDEC/AQD. Full-text digitized copies of fishfarmer-friendly materials like books, handbooks, policy guidebooks, conference proceedings, extension manuals, institutional reports, annual reports (AQD Highlights), and newsletters (SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, Aqua Farm News, AquaDept News and AQD Matters) can be retrieved and downloaded.

In the future, SAIR will expand its collection to include images, presentations, audios, and videos among others.

The objectives of the repository are to: (1) to provide reliable means for SEAFDEC/AQD researchers to store, preserve and share their research outputs and (2) to provide easy access and increase the visibility of SEAFDEC/AQD scientific publications

SAIR also aims to encourage SEAFDEC/AQD researchers for self-archiving and submitting pre-prints from which metadata will be screened and approved by the library staff.

  • Article

    Low pH affects survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of the postlarvae and early juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man 

    G Kawamura, T Bagarinao, ASK Yong, CY Chen, SNM Noor & LS Lim - Ocean Science Journal, 2015 - Springer Verlag
    Acidification of rain water caused by air pollutants is now recognized as a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We examined the effects of low pH (control pH 7.5, pH 6, pH 5, pH 4) on the survival, growth, and shell quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles in the laboratory. Hatcheryproduced postlarvae (PL 5) were stocked at 250 PL per aquarium, acclimated over 7 d to experimental pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and reared for 30 d. Dead specimens were removed and counted twice a day. After 27 d rearing, all specimens were measured for total length and body weight. Carapace quality was assessed by spectrophotometry. Survival of juveniles was highest at pH 6 (binomial 95% confidence interval 79 - 89%) followed by control pH 7.5 (56 - 68%) and pH 5 (50 - 60%) and was lowest for unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles at pH 4 (43 - 49%). The final median total length and body weight of juveniles were similar at control pH 7.5 (18.2 TL, 50.2 mg BW) and pH 6 (17.7 mm TL, 45.0 mg BW) but significantly less at pH 5 (16.7 mm TL, 38.2 mg BW); at pH 4, the postlarvae did not metamorphose and measured only 9.8 mm TL, 29.3 mg BW. Length frequency distribution showed homogeneous growth at pH 6, positive skew at control pH 7.5 and pH 5, and extreme heterogeneity at pH 4. The carapace showed different transmittance spectra and lower total transmittance (i.e. thicker carapace) in juveniles at pH 7.5, pH 6, and pH 5 than in unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles with thinner carapace at pH 4. Thus, survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of M. rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles were negatively affected by pH 5 and especially pH 4. The thinner carapace of the survivors at pH 4 was mostly due to their small size and failure to metamorphose. Natural waters affected by acid rain could decimate M. rosenbergii populations in the wild.

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  • Article

    Abdominal segment deformity syndrome (asds) and fused body segment deformity (fbsd) in cultured Penaeus indicus 

    The abdominal segment deformity disease (ASDD) is a new shrimp disease reported only in cultured Penaeus vannamei in Thailand. Shrimp with ASDD have deformed abdominal segment, jagged gut line and bumpy surfaces. Similar signs were observed in cultured P. indicus in the Philippines. However, aside from the signs described for ASDD, some P. indicus showing abdominal segment deformity syndrome (ASDS) had more severe deformities up to the extent that the number of body segments was reduced due to fusion. Shrimp with fused body segment deformity (FBSD) had four instead of five pairs of legs. To account the prevalence of the deformities in P. indicus, shrimp were classified into grossly normal shrimp (NS), shrimp with abdominal segment deformity syndrome (ASDS) and shrimp with fused segments (FBSD). Out of the shrimp sampled, 83.4 ± 5.4% was NS, 10.9 ± 6.2% was ASDS and 5.7 ± 3.0% was FBSD. Morphometric characteristics of the shrimp were measured. There was no significant difference in body weight (BW) among male and female NS, ASDS and FBSD. In both sexes, total length (TL) of FBSD was significantly shorter compared to NS and ASDS. Shrimp samples were also screened to be negative for known infectious viral diseases including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), P. vannamei nodavirus (PvNV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV). Occurrence of ASDS and FBSD in post-larvae (PL) produced from captive and wild spawners were also determined. Based on a tank experiment, no significant difference was detected between the percentages of ASDS in PL produced from wild or captive spawners but FBSD was only noted in PL produced from the latter. Deformities generally did not affect the size of P. indicus except for the reduced length of shrimp with FBSD which when coupled with missing pleopods could lead to major economic loss for shrimp farmers if not addressed properly.
  • Book chapter

    Sustainable milkfish production in marine fish cages through strong government support and effective public-private partnerships: a case study from Panabo City Mariculture Park in Davao del Norte, Philippines 

    FG Ayson, AM Ventura & EG de Jesus-Ayson - In W Miao & KK Lal (Eds.), Sustainable intensification of aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region. Documentation of successful practices, 2016 - FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
    This case study presents the successful practice of sustainable intensification of milkfish aquaculture in marine fish cages under semi-intensive grow-out conditions in the Panabo City Mariculture Park (PCMP) in Davao del Norte, Philippines. Established in 2006, PCMP became operational through the promulgation of a City Ordinance declaring 1 075 hectares of municipal waters in Panabo City as a Mariculture Development Zone/Park. The operations of PCMP were so successful that in just five years it became the third largest among the 63 operational MPs in the Philippines during 2011, with 86 private investors-locators operating a total of 322 units of cages. At present, a total of 372 units of fish cages are operating in the mariculture park (MP). A combination of factors contributed to the successful operation of PCMP, but the success is usually attributed to the effective partnership between the government (both local and national) and the private sector. The Comprehensive MP City Ordinance that governs the PCMP is strictly implemented and includes, among others, the tenurial rights and access to locators. Regulations on distances between cages are strictly enforced and security measures in the total area are jointly undertaken by the government and the locators. The national government, through the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources-National Mariculture Center (BFAR-NMC), provides technical support in all aspects from stocking to harvest during the production cycle. BFAR-NMC staff conduct regular periodic sampling of the stocks and compute feeding rates for the stocks which are implemented by the technicians/caretakers. Likewise, BFAR-NMC staff regularly monitor the water quality of the MP and the health status of the stocks. Since it became operational in 2006, the PCMP did not report a single incident of mass fish kill, which indicates that the technical guidelines of MP operations are strictly followed. Workers are trained and organized into groups by BFAR-NMC such as caretakers, cage framers, netters, harvesters, fish processors, and others, and actively participate in discussions related to MP operations to ensure protocols are properly followed. Harvests of stocks are done by skilled workers trained by BFAR-NMC, all done in the “Bagsakan Center” or fish landing area and are well-coordinated. The support facilities in the fish landing area are provided by both the local and national government and the PCMP Producers Association. The operators provide complete data for their operations to BFAR-NMC for record keeping. The strong partnership between the national government through BFAR-NMC, the local government unit, the investors, as well as the acceptance and support from the community for the PCMP is the hallmark of its success.
  • Conference paper

    Latest research on acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of penaeid shrimps 

    I Hirono, S Tinwongger, Y Nochiri & H Kondo - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by unique strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND) and V. harveyi that have transferrable plasmid carrying the virulent PirAB-like toxin genes. The genomes of VPAHPND strains and V. harveyi from Thailand and Viet Nam, respectively, have been characterized by our group. The genome of VPAHPND strains from Mexico, Viet Nam, and China have also been studied by other groups. We have developed a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods for the detection of AHPND using a primer set that targets the PirAB-like toxin genes of VPAHPND. We have characterized the toxin genes of VPAHPND strains and also constructed a recombinant plasmid (broad host range) carrying PirAB-like toxin genes. Non-VPAHPND strain N7 which does not carry the plasmid and strain FP11 which is carrying a plasmid not coding for the toxin genes were transformed with the plasmid carrying PirAB-like toxin genes. As a result, the transformed N7 and FP11 strains became virulent and killed whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) similar to or at par with the virulence of VPAHPND strain. We then fed the whiteleg shrimp with commercial feed containing the formalin-killed VPAHPND strain. After 2 days of feeding, all of the whiteleg shrimp died. These results clearly indicate that the PirAB-like toxin is the virulence factor of VPAHPND.

    We have been investigating the virulence mechanism of the PirAB-like toxin produced by VPAHPND strains. First, we calculated the copy number of plasmid encoding the PirAB-like toxin genes of several VPAHPND strains. The copy number of the plasmid varied, ranging from 1 to 36 copies. Interestingly, VPAHPND strains carrying low copy number of plasmid were more virulent than VPAHPND strains carrying high copy number of the plasmid. These results imply that the copy number of toxin genes is not an important factor responsible for the degree of virulence of the VPAHPND strains. We are also studying other factors associated with the virulence of PirAB-like toxin. Likewise, we are developing prevention methods against AHPND including the use of formalin-killed cell vaccine, IgY additive in feed, and nano-bubble treatment of rearing water. This paper summarizes the current R&D on the disease.
  • Article

    Embryonic and larval development of hatchery-reared silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Perciformes: Terapontidae) 

    FA Aya, VSN Nillasca, LMB Garcia & Y Takagi - Ichthyological Research, 2016 - Springer Verlag
    The embryonic and larval development of hatchery-reared silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus are described to provide essential information on the early life history of this species. Egg size, larval size at hatching, yolk resorption rate, onset of feeding and development of some morphological characters were examined. Fertilized eggs (430–610 µm in diameter) were spherical, yellowish, demersal and slightly adhesive. First cleavage occurred 6 min post-fertilization and embryos hatched 21–24 h post-fertilization under ambient temperature of 27.5 ± 0.1 °C. Newly hatched larvae [1.79 ± 0.04 mm in total length (TL)] with yolk volume of 0.579 ± 0.126 mm3 had no functional or pigmented eyes, mouth or digestive tract. The eyes became fully pigmented and mouth opened [31 and 36.5 hours post-hatching (hph)] shortly before yolk resorption at 39 hph and when larvae had grown to 2.65 ± 0.14 mm in TL. Some morphological characters such as total length, pre-anal length and eye diameter decreased following yolk resorption, which also coincided with the development of foraging capacities shortly before exogenous feeding was initiated. L. plumbeus larvae initiated exogenous feeding at 54 hph, indicating a short (15 h after yolk resorption) transitional feeding period. Larval growth at the early stages of development (54–72 hph) was rapid and steadily increased from 288 to 720 hph, when larvae, 12.05 ± 4.02 mm in TL, closely resembled the external characteristics of their adult conspecifics.
  • Conference paper

    OIE initiatives on acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) and other aquatic animal diseases in Asia 

    H Kugita - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) is an intergovernmental organization established in 1924 responsible for improving animal health and welfare worldwide to facilitate safe international trade of animals and animal products while avoiding unnecessary impediments to trade. OIE, as a reference organization of the World Trade Organization (WTO), works to set and update its international standards (OIE Codes and Manuals) regularly through transparent and democratic procedures. The Aquatic Code defines an OIE list of notifiable aquatic animal diseases according to the criteria for listing, which comprise consequences, spread and diagnosis. To be listed, a disease should meet the criteria of each characteristic defined in the Aquatic Code. The acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has been officially included in the OIE-listed diseases since May 2015 and officially enforced since 1 January 2016. To fulfill its overall vision which can be summarized by its slogan Protect animals and Preserve our Future, the OIE Regional Representation in Tokyo, Japan and Sub-Regional Representation in Bangkok, Thailand, are working in concert to provide regionally adapted services to OIE Members so that surveillance and control of animal diseases in the region may be strengthened.

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