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    • Book

      First annual report of the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) for the fiscal year ending December 31, 1973. 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - 1974 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      An illustrated account is presented, covering background (establishment of the department), plan of operation (functions; activities), project site development (Leganes Station, Tigbauan Station, construction of buildings, infrastructure development), research (prawn fry stocking, collection of prawn spawners, research staffing, research tie-up with Mindanao State University, Japanese fisheries experts), equipment (preparation of the list of Japanese donated equipment), organization of the department, funding.
    • Book

      Annual report 1974 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - 1975 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The 1974 report describes the development of project sites at Tigbauan and Leganes, where new ponds and labs have been established. The facilities of these labs include covered and open ponds, wet and field labs, a food preparation building, as well as dormitories and housing units. A substation is now operating at Nueva Valencia, investigating the life cycle of tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, and 5 further substations also exist. Organisational aspects are described, covering scientific staff, equipment, funding etc. The Department s activities are described in detail; these are mainly concerned with shellfish culture and the associated problems. Notes are included on the First Aquaculture Research Conference (April 1974)and 7th SEAFDEC Council Meeting (Dec 1974). Finally, the new and continuing research projects to be conducted during 1975 are listed.
    • Conference paper

      Morphological measurements, gonadal development and estimated age of adult milkfish, Chanos chanos captured in Pandan Bay from 10 May - 16 June, 1975 

      LB Tiro Jr., AC Villaluz & WE Vanstone - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      From 10 May to 16 June, 1975, 106 adult milkfish were captured in an otoshi-ami 500 meters offshore. Of the 106 specimens, 37 were females in various stages of gonadal development or spent and 69 were males of which 41 were sexually mature. The age of these fishes were estimated to be between 3 and 5 years.
    • Book | Conference publication

      International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department, & International Development Research Centre - 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Capture, transport and domestication of adult milkfish, Chanos chanos 

      WE Vanstone, AC Villaluz, PE Bombeo & RB Belicano - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Methods used in the capture, transport and domestication of adult milkfish are described and illustrated.
    • Conference paper

      The occurrence of milkfish Chanos chanos fry in Pandan Bay, Antique, from 21 May to 25 June, 1975 

      S Kumagai, AC Villaluz, LB Tiro Jr. & WE Vanstone - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Milkfish fry were collected at the Pandan shoreline and 500 meters offshore. While shore-caught fry were uniform in size those captured offshore varied in size and stage of development.
    • Conference paper

      Preliminary capture, husbandry and induced breeding results with the milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal) 

      CE Nash & CM Kuo - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The program objective is to breed the milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal), in captivity and to raise the fry from the egg, undertaking any research and development which may be necessary to attain that goal.

      In this, the first year of the project, eight very mature fish were captured and deemed ready for final spawning inducement. One fish (with eggs 0.818 mm in diameter) hydrated and was partially ovulated by two injections of 25 mg salmon gonadotrophin SG-G100. The eggs were not fertilized. The injection procedure or excessive handling and sampling of three other fish resulted in early atresia (reabsorption) of the oocytes. Two fish died from the sampling and handling procedures, and two proved to be too immature with eggs below 0.6 mm in diameter.

      Preliminary results indicate that oocytes of 0.8 mm and above are at a critical stage (or beyond) at which immediate hypophysation is needed. Injection cannot be delayed. Excessive handling or stress at this stage causes rapid atresia of the oocytes. It appears that oocytes of about 0.7 mm are more suitable for reacting positively to injections. The size of an ovulated egg is about 1.2 mm in diameter.

      The level and dose rate of SG-G100 used for mullet (20)µg/g body weight) appears too high for the milkfish. A dose of between 12 and 15 µg/g body weight is suggested at present.

      A resident population of adults of varying ages, numbering over 50 fish, has been assembled. Some were brought from the island of Hawaii to Oahu by land and sea involving 18 hours of travel. All survived the journey. Consequently a small operating satellite field center has been established on Hawaii.

      A total of 179 dead adult fish have been used for future compilation of age, weight/length, GSI, scale and otolith data. All of the samples are stored. Determination of the GSI for Hawaiian fish indicated a rapid maturation of oocytes and spermatids in June, with a peak spawning period in July and early August.

      Adult fish have been placed under photoperiod and temperature-regulated conditions to promote maturation out of season.

      General husbandry methods have been developed for adults in captivity, and a diet formulated which appears to be acceptable.

      The work on health care is proving to be very informative. Safe handling systems have been developed using ice, and hypotheses made for the results of this treatment and general conditions of stress. Autopsies on dead fish have revealed growths and evidence of heart attack and gastritis. Techniques using commercially available human clinical test kits are proving useful indicators of stress; for example, the presence of hemoglobin and ketones in the mucus increases with stress.

      Eye lens protein analyses are being undertaken to determine any different racial origins of milkfish.
    • Conference paper

      Review of work programmes carried out in India on the biology of the milkfish Chanos chanos 

      PRS Tampi & P Bensam - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This account is a brief review of the investigation carried out in India on the various aspects of the biology of the milkfish. It covers the records of observations on the distribution of Chanos fry in the coastal areas, food and feeding of the fish, its growth, maturity, fecundity and spawning, and also certain experimental results on the physiological adaptation of the fish together with the histological structures of its kidney, pituitary and thyroid. While emphasising the paucity of data on the adult milkfish in the wild, the priority areas where information is lacking especially on the spawning ground, reliable identifying characters of the egg as well as on the possible existence of different racial stocks have been discussed.
    • Conference paper

      A preliminary report on the gonadal development of adult milkfish, Chanos chanos, reared in tank 

      IC Liao & YS Chang - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Milkfish is one of the most important food fishes in Taiwan. There are more than 16,000 ha of culture area and over 160 millions of fry are needed for milkfish farming industry every year. The fry are collected from the sea and also imported from other countries. However, due to several environmental factors, there is unpredictable fluctuations in the occurrence of these wild fry. In recent years, the demand for milkfish fry has gone up considerably owing mainly to the fast-growing populations, the natural resources being so limited that there is insufficient supply of stocking materials of this important foodfish.

      To solve the problem of shortage of milkfish fry, Tungkang Marine Laboratory started the preliminary work on artificial propagation of milkfish in 1970. In addition to capturing wild spawners, the Laboratory has also been raising the adult milkfish in tanks for this objective. After being reared for six years, one male and one female were dissected on 11 April 1976. The male had ripe sperms; the testes weighing 4.63 g with the GSI of 0.12. The gonad of the female weighed 21.20 g with the GSI of 0.66 and part of the ovarian oocytes was found to be at the oil droplet (yolk vesicle) stage. Judging from the condition of maturity of the above female, the feasibility of raising tank-reared spawners was ensured. It is believed that this is the first attempt on the world and is the prelude to successful artificial propagation by using tank-reared milkfish as spawner.
    • Conference paper

      A simple method for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in net enclosures 

      RC May, GS Akiyama & MT Santerre - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A simple method is described for monitoring the spawning activity of fish held in suspended net enclosures. The method, which involves an airlift pump, has been used successfully with the threadfin, Polydactylus sexfilis, and has revealed important aspects of the daily, monthly and yearly spawning rhythms of this species. It is suggested that this approach may be useful in studies of Chanos chanos.
    • Conference paper

      Spawning of milkfish, Chanos chanos, in captivity 

      WE Vanstone, AC Villaluz & LB Tiro Jr. - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Newly captured milkfish released 0.8 mm in diameter non-hydrated eggs spontaneously in captivity. After injection with partially purified salmon gonadotropin (SG-G100), 1.2 mm in diameter hydrated eggs were released. These eggs, however, were not fertilized.
    • Conference paper

      Notes on food and feeding habits of milkfish (Chanos chanos) from the sea 

      A Poernomo - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Study on the natural food of adult milkfish was made from specimens caught from the open sea. The contents of guts from 15 specimens were qualitatively analysed, and both planktonic as well as benthic forms were encounted. The relationship between the gut length and body length has been worked out. Ten out of 15 milkfish examined were also found to be infected with Acanthocephalan parasites confined mainly to the anterior part of the intestine.
    • Conference paper

      Preliminary observation on the number of vertebra in milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal) 

      T Senta & S Kumagai - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The existence of races and/or subpopulation in milkfish, a widely distributed species, is suggested by many workers. Comparison of mean numbers of vertebrae is one of the useful method of distinguishing subpopulations. The present paper reports the results of preliminary studies made on the vertebral counts of milkfish fry collected from several areas. The results obtained, though not conclusive, suggest the scope for further study in the line.
    • Conference paper

      Bibliographical sources on the biology and culture of milkfish, Chanos chanos 

      K Kuronuma - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A comprehensive bibliography of the publications on the culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos) that were published in 1975 or earlier.
    • Conference paper

      A preliminary study on the purified test diet for young milkfish, Chanos chanos 

      DL Lee & IC Liao - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      In studying the nutritional requirements of young milkfish experiments were conducted to develop a purified test diet. Mixtures of the purified constituents tested were: vitamin-free casein, vitamin-free gelatin, supplemented with L-tryptophan and L-cystine as the protein sources; shark liver oil and soybean oil as the far sources; and dextrin as the carbohydrate source. Mineral mixture and vitamin mixture were also added.

      The results showed that a test diet containing vitamin-free casein supplemented with L-tryptophan as the protein source, was best for the growth of young milkfish. Soybean oil was found to be a better source of fat. Vitamin mixture (4%) and mineral mixture (10%) were observed to promote growth in young milkfish. A purified test diet consisting of vitamin-free casein 60%, L-tryptophan 0.5%, soybean oil 10%, vitamin mixture 4%, mineral mixture 10%, carbohydrate and others 16% was thus suggested for young milkfish.
    • Conference paper

      Effects of salinity on growth of young milkfish, Chanos chanos 

      F Hu & IC Liao - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Growth of young milkfish was studied at different levels of salinity over a period 68 days. Results suggested that young milkfish reared in freshwater or less saline sea water grew faster than in sea water. The increase in body weight was neither due to the increase in water content nor increase in feeding rate. The difference in growth rate might be attributed to the deviation from the original acclimating salinity. Mechanisms of the effect of salinity in retarding or accelerating milkfish growth should be investigated in the future.
    • Conference paper

      Qualitative analysis of the contents of the anterior portion of the oesophagus from adult milkfish, Chanos chanos, captured in Pandan Bay from 10 May-June 1975 

      AC Villaluz, LB Tiro, LM Ver & WE Vanstone - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Qualitative analysis of food items in the anterior spiral portion of the oesophagus suggests that adult milkfish feed on both benthic and planktonic materials.
    • Conference paper

      Ongoing research studies on maturation and spawning of milkfish, Chanos chanos at the brackishwater shrimp and milkfish culture applied research and training project, Jepara, Indonesia 

      KH Alikunhi - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper gives an account of the research work carried out at Jepara, Indonesia, on induction of maturity of milkfish in ponds and enclosures, and procurement of the spawners from the wild for seed production by hypophysation. Seven to eight years old pond grown milkfish were found sexually immature. Experiments are being conducted for growing and inducing maturity in 1-2 years old milkfish in fertilized ponds with regular tidal flow of water and also under regular hypophysation program. Milkfish spawners collected from sea had a few males in oozing condition and females mostly spent.
    • Conference paper

      Notes on the capture, handling and transport of the sabalo or adult milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal) 

      R Mateo, O Paraan & L Rodriguez - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper describes a simple and inexpensive method of handling and transporting wild sabalo captured from the sea.
    • Conference paper

      Milkfish cultivation in Sarawak 

      OK Bian - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper reports the results of experimental rearing of milkfish fry in both fresh and brackishwater ponds in Sarawak. Date on the growth and survival of these imported fry are also given.