Survival and growth of bighead carp fry exposed to low salinities
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Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis Oshima) fry of various ages (11, 18, and 35 days post-hatch) were exposed to the low salinities encountered during the annual intrusion of seawater in Laguna Lake, Philippines. Practical indices of salinity tolerance assessed the effect of a 96 h direct exposure to low salinities (0–16‰). Mean (MST) and median survival times (MST50) of fry decreased as salinity of rearing medium increased. Younger fry were less able to tolerate exposure to these salinities than their older cohorts. Median lethal salinity after 96 h (MLS) revealed higher tolerance among 35–day old fry (7.6‰) than 11 (2.3‰) and 18–day old fry (6.0‰), demonstrating that survival in saline water depends on their age at initial exposure to low salinities. Mean body weight of 18–day old fry reared in 0 and 2‰ for 3 and 4 weeks was higher than for those reared in 4 and 6‰ for the same period. Growth over these periods was inversely related with the range of salinities tested. These results demonstrate that, despite their known stenohalinity, bighead carp fry possess some degree of osmoregulatory capability, allowing them to survive and grow in lakes subjected periodically to saltwater inflow.
CitationGarcia, L. M. B., Garcia, C. M. H., Pineda, A. F. S., Gammad, E. A., Canta, J., Simon, S. P. D., ... Santiago, C. B. (1999). Survival and growth of bighead carp fry exposed to low salinities.
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ArticleGV Hilomen-Garcia, R Delos Reyes & CMH Garcia -
Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2003 - Blackwell PublishingIn line with current conservation efforts, some success in the captive breeding of the seahorse Hippocampus kuda (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) has been achieved. To evaluate the salinity tolerance of these hatchery-bred juveniles, 9-week-old H. kuda were transferred without prior acclimatization from ambient full strength seawater (32–33 ppt) to salinities ranging from freshwater to 85 ppt. Survival, growth, and total body water content were determined after 4 and 18 days of exposure. Juvenile H. kuda are able to survive in dilute seawater (15 ppt) for at least 18 days without any compromise in growth (both wet and dry body weight), survival, and total body water. Fish abruptly transferred to freshwater succumbed within 4–24 h, while survival of 5 ppt-reared fish decreased to ca. 65% in 18 days. Although 10 ppt-reared seahorses had growth and survival comparable with the control (30 ppt seawater), total body water was significantly elevated indicating reduced adaptability. The upper limit of H. kuda salinity tolerance was 50 ppt. Fish reared at salinities ≥55 ppt succumbed within 24 h. Like several other marine teleosts, growth and survival of juvenile H. kuda tended to peak in diluted seawater salinities of 15 and 20 ppt. These results indicate the possibility of growing hatchery-bred H. kuda in brackishwater environments.
Growth and production of deformed and nondeformed hatchery-bred milkfish (Chanos chanos) in brackishwater ponds NS Sumagaysay, GV Hilomen-Garcia & LMB Garcia -
The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1999 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine BiotechnologyThis study evaluated the growth and survival of morphologically deformed and nondeformed hatchery-bred milkfish in brackishwater ponds. It compared the size-frequency distribution of the nondeformed fish with the deformed ones, and determined the effects of different types of deformity on growth. The deformities include the absence of an upper jaw, a folded operculum with gills exposed, a cleft branchiostegal membrane, scoliosis, etc. The results were compared with production of wild stock. Hatchery-bred and wild milkfish fry were grown separately in nursery ponds (500 m2/pond) at 10 individuals/m2. After a month, the juveniles (average weight hatchery-bred 6.0 g; wild 9.5 g) were transferred to seven rearing ponds of 1000 m2 each (stocking density 3000/ha). Three ponds were stocked with selected, nondeformed hatchery-bred fish (unmixed stock), three ponds with a combination of deformed and nondeformed hatchery-bred fish (1:2 ratio; mixed stock), and one pond with wild fish. The final weight, specific growth rate and survival of the nondeformed fish (mixed and unmixed stock) after four months of culture were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the deformed fish. Production, however, did not significantly differ between the unmixed nondeformed (433 kg/ha) and the mixed deformed and nondeformed (377 kg/ha) fish. Survival of the deformed stock (56%) was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the nondeformed stock (86-88%). Approximately 92% of the deformed stock and 17-20% of the nondeformed were below 150 g. Severe deformities such as the absence of an upper jaw and exposure of all or most of the gills hindered fish growth, while widening of the operculum or branchiostegal membrane, scoliosis, or absence of the anal fin had less effect on growth. To lower the incidence of deformities in grow-out ponds, milkfish fry should be reared to the early juvenile stage in nursery ponds for at least a month. The harsh natural conditions in the nursery ponds (e.g., presence of predators, abrupt changes in salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen) and stress during transfer to rearing ponds may eliminate most of the weak fish and those with severe deformities.
Critical factors influencing survival and hatching of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) eggs during simulated transport The effects of loading density, length of transit time, temperature and salinity on milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) eggs during simulated transport were examined. Rocking motion approximating conditions of transport of eggs collected from milkfish broodstock floating net cages to a hatchery was simulated using a laboratory orbit shaker. Loading densities of more than 7000 eggs/l in shipping bags resulted in decreased rates of survival and correspondingly lower hatching rates. Prolonged shaking simulating extended periods of egg transport also resulted in low egg survival and hatching rates compared to fertilized eggs not subjected to simulated transport. Egg survival after simulated transport at 20°C was lower than at 28°C, except at 20 ppt salinity, where survival was equal. Egg survival at 20°C progressively increased with declining salinity levels whereas high egg survival rates were observed after 2 h of simulated egg transport at 28°C and at the three salinities tested. Hatching rates of fertilized eggs after simulated transport were higher at 28°C than at 20°C regardless of salinity. Neither salinity nor its interaction with temperature affected hatching rates of eggs after simulated transport. These results indicate that survival and hatching of fertilized milkfish eggs after simulated transport is influenced by loading density, transport time, temperature and, to some degree, the salinity of the water. Based on these results, guidelines for handling and transporting milkfish eggs are given.