These papers were contributed by Department staff to various national and international journals and/or presented at scientific meetings/conferences.

Recent Submissions

  • Article

    Genetic assessment of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) stocks based on novel short tandem repeats for marker-aided broodstock management 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, BS Santos, M Ikeda, ZU Basiao & A Kijima - Aquaculture Research, 2018 - John Wiley and Sons
    Milkfish hatchery broodstock are either from on-grown wild-caught or hatchery-produced fry/juveniles. To determine if a marker-assisted management scheme can be formulated for improved milkfish hatchery production, milkfish stocks were genetically characterized using nine novel short tandem repeats or microsatellites. Eight wild-bred Philippine stocks (CLA, CUR, CAM, SIH, SBH-I1, HH, PAL and ZH-P0), four hatchery-bred stocks (SBH-I2, SBH-D, BoH and ZH-F1), two farm stocks of known mixed lineages (SPH and BDH) and one Indonesian hatchery-bred stock (WJH) were assessed. WJH was included since milkfish fingerlings from Indonesia reared in Philippine farms could be developed into future broodstock. Mean allelic richness (Ar) was highest in wild-bred stocks (9.5) and lowest in hatchery-bred spawners (9.1). Mean expected heterozygosities (He) were relatively similar in all stocks with wild-bred stocks slightly higher (0.67) than the others. An analysis of molecular variance indicated significant yet low genetic differentiation among stocks (FST = 0.013; p = .000) where variation (98.6%) was explained by intra-stock differences. In some of the domesticated stocks, reductions in mean allelic richness were observed in first generation hatchery broodstock (e.g. ZH-F1; Ar = 8.3), compared with their founder stock (e.g. ZH-P0; Ar = 9.4). The Indonesian stock was similar to local wild-bred stocks based on genetic variability indices; thus, it might be likely that the local stocks’ fitness traits could be comparable with the imported milkfish stock which has been perceived to be better. The quality of locally available farmed milkfish and prospects of formulating a broodstock management scheme for the production of good quality milkfish seedstock are herewith discussed.
  • Article

    Characterisation of Vibrio isolates recovered from the eyes of cage-cultured pompano (Trachinotus blochii) infested with caligid parasites (Lepeophtheirus spinifer) 

    R Pakingking Jr., NB Bautista, D Catedral & EG de Jesus-Ayson - European Association of Fish Pathologists Bulletin, 2018 - European Association of Fish Pathologists
    Exophthalmia was documented among sea cage-cultured pompano (Trachinotus blochii) broodstocks with caligid parasite (Lepeophtheirus spinifer) infestation in the Philippines. Following sequencing, and based on the results of both diagnostic investigations and infection experiments, V. harveyi likely had a role in the reported exophthalmia cases, and this was initiated by L. spinifer infection.
  • Article

    Larval rearing of mud crab (Scylla): What lies ahead 

    K Waiho, H Fazhan, ET Quinitio, JC Baylon, Y Fujaya, G Azmie, Q Wu, X Shi, M Ikhwanuddin & H Ma - Aquaculture, 2018 - Elsevier
    The increasing global demand for mud crabs (genus Scylla) and threats to the wild populations highlight the urgency of fully rearing them in captivity. Despite considerable progress in mud crab production, most crab farms still rely heavily on wild-caught crablets and juveniles while the low and inconsistent success rates of larviculture remain as the main bottleneck impeding the development of mud crab aquaculture. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted to determine the optimum larval rearing parameters, the ontogenic changes in digestive function and feeding behaviour, and the diets for different larval stages. These data, however, are dispersed and not summarised to inform culture practices. This review provides an update on the current progresses and to pinpoint the gaps in knowledge regarding mud crab larval rearing. We include all four mud crab species under the genus Scylla, i.e. Scylla serrata, Scylla olivacea, Scylla tranquebarica and Scylla paramamosain. Knowledge compiled in this review serves as an important guideline for prospective mud crab larviculture. Future research should gear towards filling in the gaps in our knowledge to advance mud crab larval rearing, thus fully incorporating mud crab into the aquaculture sector.
  • Article

    Quality assessment of newly hatched mud crab, Scylla serrata, larvae 

    ET Quinitio, JJ dela Cruz-Huervana & FD Parado-Estepa - Aquaculture Research, 2018 - Wiley
    Starvation and exposure to formalin were investigated as possible stress tests for evaluating the quality of mud crab, Scylla serrata, larvae. For the starvation stress test, newly hatched zoeae stocked in 150-ml containers were either starved or fed rotifers. Similarly, newly hatched zoeae were stocked in containers with seawater of 0 (control), 20, 30 and 40 mg/L formalin for the formalin stress test. The zoeae from the same batches were used for seed production to monitor their performance and validate the results of stress tests. Starvation was found to be unsuitable for larval quality evaluation. However, the impact of initial food deprivation on the newly hatched larvae indicates that feeding immediately after hatching is necessary for mud crab larvae. Exposure of larvae to 40 mg/L formalin for 3 hr appeared to be a reliable and practical method for larval quality assessment as the survival of larvae in the mass production tanks validated the classification of good and poor quality batches in the stress tests. On this basis, a hatchery operator can decide which batch should be cultured further. Finally, there appears to be a link between the quality of larvae and the performance at the megalopa and early juvenile crabs.
  • Article

    Low ph water impairs the tactile sense of the postlarvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

    G Kawamura, T Bagarinao, ASK Yong, SN Noor & LS Lim - Tropical Life Sciences Research, 2018 - Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
    The effect of low pH on the tactile sense of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae was determined in the laboratory by means of two behavioural assays: shelter (netting) occupancy and jumping response to touch stimuli (taps) by a glass micropipette. The postlarvae were acclimated to pH 4, pH 5, pH 6 and pH 7.5 (control) in 45 L aquaria 5−7 d before the experiments. Shelter occupancy decreased with pH and was significantly lower at pH 4 and pH 5 than at pH 6 and in the control. The jumping response instantly followed a tap 93−98% of the time in the control, pH 6 and pH 5 treatments. However, the postlarvae showed significantly lower jumping response (65%) at pH 4, indicating an impaired tactile sense. Low pH 4−5 probably degrades the chitin of the sensory setae and inhibits the surface mechanoreceptors of the prawn postlarvae.
  • Article

    Does age matter?: The information-seeking behavior of Filipino aquaculture researchers 

    DL Superio - Journal of Library Administration, 2018 - Taylor & Francis
    Findings of previous studies revealed that regardless of the objective, age does affect the information-seeking behavior of an individual. Likewise, this study found the same results. Although all of the younger Filipino aquaculture researchers preferred the Internet to begin their search process, it was found that they were more frequent library users, and more reliant on librarians than their older counterparts. Likewise, they preferred the combination of print and electronic formats when reading. Thus, they would print and save the retrieved electronic copy of information at least very often. The study is a valuable addition to the information-seeking behavior studies on Filipinos, and the first to tackle the effects of age on the information-seeking behavior of Filipino aquaculture researchers.
  • Article

    Parasites from the green mussel (Perna viridis Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) of Ivisan, Capiz, Philippines 

    G Erazo-Pagador - Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2018 - College of Agriculture and Food Science, University of the Philippines Los Baños
    This study reports the parasites found in green mussel (Perna viridis L.) from Ivisan, Capiz, Philippines. Samples were collected monthly from January to December 2009. A total of 360 samples were collected, fixed in 10% formalin in seawater solution, and processed by standard histological techniques that included staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin (H & E). The water temperature ranged from 24 to 30°C and salinity from 18 to 23 ppt. Microscopic analysis showed that the most prevalent parasites were Nematopsis sp. occurring mostly in connective tissues (46%), metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. in the mantle (12%), and a turbellarian (4%) and metacercariae in the mantle (4%). Based on these findings, these parasites may not yet be a problem to mussel farming as they were low and caused no apparent damage to the host.
  • Article

    Effects of the dietary fermented tuna by-product meal on growth, blood parameters, nonspecific immune response, and disease resistance in juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus 

    FO Oncul, FA Aya, A Hamidoghli, S Won, G Lee, KR Han & SC Bai - Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 2018 - World Aquaculture Society
    This study evaluated the effects of dietary fermented tuna by‐product meal (FTBM) in juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Five diets were formulated to replace fishmeal (FM) with FTBM at 0% (FTBM0), 12.5% (FTBM12.5), 25.0% (FTBM25), 37.5% (FTBM37.5), or 50% (FTBM50). After 8 wk, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency of fish fed FTBM0 and FTBM12.5 diets were significantly higher than fish fed the other diets (P < 0.05). Also, mean cumulative survival rates (%) of fish fed the FTBM0 and FTBM12.5 diets were significantly higher than those fed FTBM50 diet at Day 9 postchallenge with Edwardsiella tarda (P < 0.05). Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed FTBM0 and FTBM12.5 diets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than fish fed diets FTBM37.5 and FTBM50. Broken‐line regression analysis of weight gain showed an optimal FM replacement level of 10.65% with FTBM. Therefore, the optimal dietary inclusion of FTBM in juvenile olive flounder diets could be greater than 10.65% but less than 12.5% without any adverse physiological effects on fish health.
  • Article

    Microalgal paste production of the diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans using electrolytic flocculation method at optimum culture conditions 

    MR de la Peña, AV Franco, HP Igcasan Jr., MDGN Arnaldo, RM Piloton, SS Garibay & VT Balinas - Aquaculture International, 2018 - Springer Verlag
    The optimum culture conditions of the local strain Chaetoceros calcitrans were determined to improve biomass and reduce cost of production. Under outdoor culture conditions, higher cell density was attained when the cultures were enriched with Tungkang Marine Research Laboratory (TMRL) medium composed of cheap technical grade reagents and cultured at 25 g L−1 salinity. The cultures were lighted with two 40 W cool-white GE fluorescent tubes (24–35 μmol photon m−2 s−1). Using semi-continuous culture system under established optimum culture conditions, C. calcitrans can be re-cultured thrice and concentrated at each culture cycle using electrolytic flocculation method to produce 4.6 kg m−3 of diatom paste. The viability of concentrated C. calcitrans after 3 months of storage was comparable to live diatom cells. Simple preservation technique by low-temperature storage is convenient for storing algal concentrates for use as starter cultures and for feeding invertebrates. The paste costs USD 8.24 kg−1 inclusive of the assets and flocculation materials for culturing and harvesting the diatom, respectively. This study established the suitable conditions for mass culture of C. calcitrans and produced concentrated diatoms in paste form that is readily available for aquaculture hatcheries at a lower cost.
  • Article

    Dietary onion or ginger modulates the stress response and susceptibility to Vibrio harveyi JML1 infection in brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus juveniles 

    EC Amar, MJS Apines-Amar & JP Faisan Jr. - Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 2018 - American Fisheries Society
    Onion Allium cepa and ginger Zingiber officinale have health‐promoting properties that qualify them as functional foods. The effect of repeated acute stressors was examined in juvenile Brown‐marbled Grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus that were fed four diets supplemented with onion at 1.8%, ginger at 1.8%, vitamin C at 0.86%, and β‐glucan at 0.8% of the diet. The non‐supplemented diet served as the control. After 12 weeks of feeding, fish were exposed to stressors and were experimentally infected with a fish pathogen, the bacterium Vibrio harveyi JML1. After repeated exposure to hypoxia, cortisol levels rose significantly in the non‐supplemented fish compared to those fed onion, ginger, β‐glucan, or vitamin C. Within groups, postexposure cortisol levels in the onion‐, ginger‐, and vitamin C‐fed fish did not change relative to pre‐stress levels, whereas significant increases in poststress values were observed in the control and β‐glucan groups. The net cortisol increase was also significantly greater in the non‐supplemented group compared to the supplemented groups. The net cortisol increase did not vary among the supplemented groups except that the β‐glucan‐fed group exhibited a higher net increase than the onion‐fed group. Similarly, repeated acute exposure to osmotic stress significantly increased the plasma cortisol level in the non‐supplemented group compared to groups that received supplements; no differences were found in the supplemented groups except the β‐glucan group. Within groups, significant increases in poststress values relative to pre‐stress levels were found only in the control and β‐glucan groups. Repeated acute exposure to hypoxia significantly increased cumulative mortality in the control group compared to the supplemented groups (except the β‐glucan group), whereas repeated exposure to acute osmotic stress significantly increased cumulative mortality only in the control group 10 d after infection with V. harveyi JML1. Based on our collective results, most of the supplemented groups performed better than the control, but the best supplements were onion and ginger in terms of enhancing stress tolerance and increasing survival of Brown‐marbled Grouper upon infection with V. harveyi JML1.
  • Article

    Limit of colour vision in dim light in larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

    G Kawamura, TU Bagarinao, ASK Yong, AB Faisal & LS Lim - Fisheries Science, 2018 - Springer Verlag
    Colour vision depends on sufficient ambient light and becomes ineffective at a particular low light intensity. It is not known how decapod crustaceans see colour in dim light. In the present study we investigated the colour vision threshold in larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a tank under natural illumination. Plastic beads of different colours (blue, red, yellow and white) in various combinations were suspended in the tank. The larvae swam straight toward the beads and gathered around them. The number of larvae was highest on the blue and white beads. The luminance in the tank was then gradually decreased by covering it with different numbers of layers of black cloth, and the response of the larvae to the beads was video-recorded under infrared illumination. The preference for blue and white beads remained manifest as the luminance was reduced from 418 to 0.07 cd/m2, but not at 0.02 cd/m2, indicating a colour vision threshold between 0.07 and 0.02 cd/m2. The larvae have apposition compound eyes with large optical parameters, comparable to those of apposition eyes of nocturnal insects, which presumably capture more light and show enhanced sensitivity, enabling the larvae to see colour in dim light.
  • Article

    Mortality of pond-cultured Litopenaeus vannamei associated with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in the Philippines 

    LD de la Peña, NAR Cabillon, EC Amar, DD Catedral, RC Usero, JP Faisan Jr., JI Arboleda, WD Monotilla, AT Calpe, DD Fernandez & CP Saloma - Fish Pathology, 2017 - Japanese Society of Fish Pathology
    Mortalities of up to 60% were observed in pond-cultured Litopenaeus vannamei in Bohol, Philippines. Histopathological examination revealed typical acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) pathology. PCR test generated 1,269 bp and 230 bp amplicons confirmative for the toxin-producing AHPND strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from eight ponds. The same samples were subjected to PCR analyses for the presence of other viruses, namely WSSV, IHHNV, IMNV, and TSV. The samples were negative for the viruses except WSSV, which was detected after one-step PCR in six out of eight ponds. These results suggested that shrimp were infected dually with AHPND V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV.
  • Article

    Shelter colour preference of the postlarvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

    G Kawamura, T Bagarinao, ASK Yong, TC Fen & LS Lim - Fisheries Science, 2017 - Springer Verlag
    The addition of artificial shelters of various materials has been used in Macrobrachium rosenbergii tanks and ponds as a means of increasing productivity. The present study investigated the shelter colour preference of M. rosenbergii postlarvae (age 15–18 days after metamorphosis) in the laboratory. Shelter occupancy tests were performed on four groups of 200 postlarvae in four 57-l aquaria, into which were placed shelters made of rigid coloured netting sewn into four-layered cubes open on two sides. The shelters were presented in six colour pairs: black vs dark green, black vs light green, black vs blue, dark green vs light green, dark green vs blue, and light green vs blue. Colour preference was tested six times for each colour pair. The data obtained were analyzed using Thurstone’s law of comparative judgment. The mean z-score was significantly highest (i.e., highest preference) for the black shelter. Vision was involved in the detection of and approach to the shelter. When released in aquaria, intact-eyed individual postlarvae directly approached the shelter straight away, whereas blind postlarvae (paint over the eyes) swam around randomly and occupied the shelter only after accidental contact much later. Postlarvae in open water out of the shelter exhibited frequent aggressive contact, while those in the shelter were quiescent. The use of black shelters in rearing tanks is thus recommended for reducing stress and aggression among M. rosenbergii postlarvae in the hatchery.
  • Book chapter

    Luminous Vibrio and the greenwater culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon with tilapia 

    GD Lio-Po - In PW Perschbacher & RR Stickney (Eds.), Tilapia in Intensive Co-culture, 2017 - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Luminous vibriosis is a devastating infection of penaeid shrimp larvae and juveniles causing heavy mortalities. To counter the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, shrimp farmers in the Philippines modified their growout culture method of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, juveniles and developed the greenwater culture technique. This culture method involves the use of pond water of all-male, saline-tolerant Oreochromis hornorum as rearing water for the culture of shrimp juveniles in ponds. Such a modified culture of P. monodon juveniles was found effective in preventing the onset of luminous vibriosis. Basic studies revealed that antiluminous Vibrio factors are inherent in the bacterial, fungal, and microalgal flora of the tilapia water, dermal mucus, and gut that singly or collectively inhibit the growth of V. harveyi, in vitro. The skin mucus studies of other brackishwater fish species showed that the siganids, Siganus guttatus, and red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis mossambicus), as well as sea bass, Lates calcarifer, are promising alternative fish species for this novel shrimp culture method. A review of pond-simulated studies in tanks and ponds, similarly, confirmed these findings and the impact of the greenwater culture technique on water quality, including its economic benefits to the farmer. The greenwater culture of shrimp can sustain the successful production of shrimp juveniles by inhibition of the luminous Vibrio. This culture method is also currently used in the growout culture of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.
  • Article

    Optimum low salinity to reduce cannibalism and improve survival of the larvae of freshwater African catfish Clarias gariepinus 

    G Kawamura, T Bagarinao, ASK Yong, PW Sao, LS Lim & S Senoo - Fisheries Science, 2017 - Springer Verlag
    The freshwater African catfish Clarias gariepinus is carnivorous and cannibalistic even during the larval and juvenile stages and this behavior causes economic losses in aquaculture. This study examined for the first time the effect of salinity on cannibalism, survival, and growth of African catfish larvae in the hatchery. Larvae (4 days old, median 7.8 mm TL, 2.8 mg BW) of the African catfish were reared for 21 days at nominal salinity 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 ppt. After 21 days, they grew to 10–39 mm (median 22 mm) and 10–490 mg (median 90 mg), with no significant difference by salinity treatments. Survival ratios were similarly low (24–31%) at 0, 1, 3, and 7 ppt and significantly higher (49–55%) at 2, 4, 5, and 6 ppt. Cannibalism was significantly lower, 15–30% at 4–6 ppt, than the 40–50% at 0–3 and 7 ppt. Size variation was lower at 4–6 ppt and higher at 0–3 and 7 ppt. We recommend hatchery rearing of African catfish at the optimum low salinity of 4–6 ppt rather than in full fresh water at least up to 21 days. This rearing method fosters larval welfare and improves hatchery production.
  • Article

    A probiotic Bacillus strain containing amorphous poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) stimulates the innate immune response of Penaeus monodon postlarvae 

    JLQ Laranja, EC Amar, GL Ludevese-Pascual, Y Niu, MJ Geaga, P De Schryver & P Bossier - Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 2017 - Elsevier
    In this study, the PHB-accumulating Bacillus sp. JL47 strain (capable of accumulating 55% PHB on cell dry weight) was investigated for its effects on the immune response of giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) postlarvae (PL) before and after the Vibrio campbellii challenge. Briefly, shrimp PL were cultured and fed with Artemia nauplii enriched with Bacillus sp. JL47. Shrimp receiving the Artemia nauplii without JL47 enrichment were used as control. After 15 days of feeding, the shrimp were challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii LMG 21363 at 106 cells mL-1 by immersion. Relative expression of the immune related genes encoding for prophenoloxidase (proPO), transglutaminase (TGase) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the shrimp were measured before (0 h) and after (3, 6, 9, 12, 24 h) the Vibrio challenge by quantitative real-time PCR using β-actin as the reference gene. The expressions of TGase and proPO were significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) within 9 h and 12 h, respectively after challenge in shrimp receiving the Bacillus sp. JL47 as compared to the challenged and non-challenged controls. Hsp70 expression was significantly increased (p < 0.05) at 3 h post-challenge in all challenged shrimp. Interestingly, proPO and TGase genes were significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) in Bacillus sp. JL47 treated shrimp even before the Vibrio challenge was applied. No up-regulation in the Hsp70 gene, however, was observed under these conditions. The data suggest that the protective effect of the PHB-accumulating Bacillus sp. JL47 in shrimp was due to its capacity to stimulate the innate immune related genes of the shrimp, specifically the proPO and TGase genes. The application of probiotic Bacillus species, capable of accumulating a significant amount of PHB, is suggested as potential immunostimulatory strategy for aquaculture.
  • Article

    Clonal production of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty in vitro 

    MRJ Luhan & JP Mateo - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2017 - Springer Verlag
    Micropropagation has proven to be a reliable method to mass produce certain crops. This method also has been applied in macroalgae to produce clones for seaweed farming. Protocols for callus production and shoot regeneration from protoplasts have been established for some seaweed species like Kappaphycus alvarezii. Cells and larger tissues, whether in solid or suspension medium, have been used to propagate clones which were later tested for suitability for farming. Although clonal production was successful, the long duration of culture in vitro limits the production process making the growing of Kappaphycus in vitro an expensive technique to produce clones. In this study, K. alvarezii was grown in vitro to develop a more efficient protocol for the production of clones. Small sections of Kappaphycus were grown in suspension for 1 month under the same temperature, light, and salinity. The type of media, source of explants, length of explants, and stocking density that resulted in the highest growth rate and survival rate were determined. Growth rate of K. alvarezii is significantly higher in media with inorganic nitrogen added than in Grund medium or Ascophyllum nodosum medium only. The appearance of shoot primordia as early as 5 days was observed in media with higher nitrogen concentration. Growth rates of explants approximately 3 and 5 mm are significantly higher than 10 mm sections. Shoots develop significantly faster in explants from tips than sections from older branches. Growth rate of K. alvarezii grown at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 s 10 mL−1 of medium is not significantly different. This protocol could significantly reduce the (1) time of culture and (2) cost of plantlets production by not using plant growth regulators and formulated media in vitro. Nursery reared plantlets/propagules for farming would be affordable to the stakeholders for sustainability of seaweed production.
  • Article

    Sensory systems and feeding behaviour of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the marine whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei 

    G Kawamura, TU Bagarinao & ASK Yong - Borneo Journal of Marine Science and Aquaculture, 2017 - Borneo Marine Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah
    Information on the sensory basis of shrimp feeding provides the means for assessment of the effectiveness of food items in terms of smell, taste, size, and colour. This chapter summarizes information about the sensory basis of the feeding behaviour of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and the marine whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Existing literature on these shrimp species and other decapod crustaceans is reviewed, and unpublished experiments using the selective sensory ablation technique to determine the involvement of vision, chemoreception, and touch sense in the feeding behavior of the juveniles of M. rosenbergii and L. vannamei are also described. To determine the role of vision in feeding, the eyes of the juveniles were painted over (deprived of vision) with white manicure and their feeding response to commercial pellets was compared with those with untreated eyes. The untreated eyed juveniles detected and approached a feed pellet right away, but the specimens blinded by the coating detected a pellet only after random accidental touch with the walking legs while roaming on the aquarium bottom. Juveniles that had learned to feed on pellets showed food search and manipulation responses to a pellet-like pebble without smell and taste. The early larvae (zoeae) of M. rosenbergii already have colour vision (that likely persists through life) and colour preference for blue and white. The adults of L. vannamei discriminated a blue-colored well among seven grey wells in a palette, also showing colour vision in this shrimp. A behavioural experiment with dyed prawn flesh showed that L. vannamei has innate color preference for yellow food over black, red, green, and blue food regardless of the background colours of the aquarium bottom. To disrupt chemoreception, the juveniles of both the species were abruptly transferred to water of drastically different salinity and the osmotic ablation destroyed the chemosensitive sensilla. The osmotically ablated juveniles approached a pellet right away but failed to ingest it; they had learned the visual cue and texture of the pellets and recognized them by vision and tactile sense. To determine the role of sensory appendages in feeding of L. vannamei juveniles, the antennal flagella, antennular flagella, and the pincers of the pereiopods were ablated. The ablated juveniles roamed the bottom, touched a pellet at random, grabbed it with the maxillipeds, and ingested it. Subsequently they learned to lower the head, actively swim forward, sweep the bottom with the maxillipeds, detect a pellet, and ingest it—thus indicating a plasticity in feeding behaviour in L. vannamei.
  • Article

    Use of agar-bound microparticulate diet as alternative food for tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina (Linnaeus 1758) post-larvae in large-scale cultures 

    MN Bautista-Teruel, JRH Maquirang, MR de la Peña & VT Balinas - Aquaculture International, 2017 - Springer Verlag
    The efficacy of using agar-bound microparticulate diet (A-MPD) as alternative food for abalone Haliotis asinina Linne post-larvae in large-scale culture was investigated. Larvae sourced from the hatchery-bred (HB) and wild-sourced (WS) broodstock were fed with either diatoms (TMT1-NF), agar-bound microparticulate diet (TMT2-A-MPD), or a combination of both feeds (TMT3-NF + A-MPD) in six 2-m3 tanks replicated over time. Three hundred thousand veliger larvae were stocked/tank containing 80 corrugated plates with mucus trails hanging on bamboo poles. Feeds were given at 0900 h starting at day 3 with seawater flow through introduced every 1400 h starting day 5. Two-way analysis of variance determined significant differences (p < 0.05) in survival and shell length between larval sources and feed types. Tukey’s post hoc test established differences among treatment means. At day 30, survival for HB- and WS-sourced larvae was significantly higher (42%) in TMT3 compared with TMT2 having 35% for HB and 38% for WS (p < 0.05). Larvae fed with TMT1 had significantly lowest survival among the three treatments. Survival at 60 and 90 days did not show significant difference for TMT2 and TMT3 regardless of broodstock source. Post-larval shell growth (90 days), from both sources fed with TMT2 and TMT3, was significantly higher than TMT1 (p < 0.05). Larval performance did not show any significant interactions between HB and WS broodstock. The use of A-MPD alone or in combination may elicit improvement in survival and shell length growth in abalone larvae regardless of larval sources. A-MPD may be used as full or partial replacements to diatoms as alternative food for abalone post-larvae in large-scale culture.
  • Article

    Colour discrimination in dim light by the larvae of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus 

    G Kawamura, T Bagarinao, PK Hoo, J Justin & LS Lim - Ichthyological Research, 2017 - Springer
    Many demersal fish species undergo vertical shifts in habitats during ontogeny especially after larval metamorphosis. The visual spectral sensitivity shifts with the habitat, indicating a change in colour vision. Colour vision depends on sufficient ambient light and becomes ineffective at a particular low light intensity. It is not known how fishes see colour in dim light. By means of a behavioural experiment on larval African catfish Clarias gariepinus in the laboratory, we determined colour vision and colour discrimination in dim light. Light-adapted larvae were subjected to classical conditioning to associate a reward feed with a green or a red stimulus placed among 7 shades of grey. The larvae learned this visual task after 70 and 90 trials. A different batch of larvae were trained to discriminate between green and red and then tested for the ability to discriminate between these colours, as the light intensity was reduced. The larvae learned this visual task after 110 trials in bright light and were able to discriminate colours, as light was dimmed until 0.01 lx, the minimal illuminance measurable in this study, and similar to starlight. The retinae of the larvae were found to be light adapted at 0.01 lx; thus indicating cone-based colour vision at this illuminance. For comparison, three human subjects were tested under similar conditions and showed a colour vision threshold at between 1.5 and 0.1 lx. For the larvae of C. gariepinus, the ability of colour discrimination in dim light is probably due to its retinal tapetum, which could increase the sensitivity of cones.

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