On the induced spawning and larval rearing of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal)
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A female milkfish, captured at sea, was injected with two hormonal injections of acetone-dried salmon pituitary powder and human chorionic gonadotropin, plus Vitamin B complex. It was stripped, and produced 128,000 ripe eggs with an average diameter of 1.15 mm. Fertilization rate was 38% following artificial fertilization with milt from an uninjected male. A total of 36,000 larvae hatched (74% of fertile eggs) after 26–32 h at 34 ‰ salinity and 27–32°C. The newly hatched larvae measured 3.4 mm in mean total length and possessed a large yolk sac. The mouth of the larvae opened about 54 h after hatching. The larvae were fed with fertilized oyster eggs, rotifers, copepods, brine shrimp, flour and prepared feed, together with Chlorella. A critical period was between the 4th and 6th days with mortality over 80%. The larvae started increasing in length by Day 8, and had the appearance of the wild fry by Day 11. On Day 13 a pigmentation pattern developed and the biggest larva measured 10.0 mm. By Day 18 the larvae measured 12.5 mm, and 14.5 mm by Day 21. A total of 2,859 fry was obtained; the highest larval survival rate obtained from different experimental groups was 46.8%.
Contribution No. 35 of the Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC.
CitationLiao, I.-C., Juario, J. V., Kumagai, S., Nakajima, H., Natividad, M., & Buri, P. (1979). On the induced spawning and larval rearing of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal).
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Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
BookBureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries StandardsThe Philippine National Standard (PNS) for Organic Aquaculture (PNS/BAFS 112:2016) was originally prepared and adopted in 2012. Organic aquaculture encourages polyculture production system, promotes the use of indigenous/endemic species under the extensive and semi-intensive culture systems, reduces/minimizes inputs of artificial ingredients, prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and considers ecological conditions necessary for sustainable aquaculture production. The PNS for Organic Aquaculture was revised by the Technical Working Group (TWG) organized by the Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) through a Department of Agriculture (DA) Special Order No.476, Series of 2015. The TWG is composed of members representing the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), Organic Certification Center of the Philippines (OCCP), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC-AQD), Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) and Central Luzon State University (CLSU). This PNS was presented and reviewed during the consultative meetings with the concerned stakeholders in Region I (Pangasinan) and Region XI (Davao City). Comments gathered during the consultations were carefully evaluated by the TWG and included accordingly in the final version of this standard. Drawn from the general principles of the Philippine National Standard on Organic Agriculture, this PNS on Organic Aquaculture attempts to cover the aquaculture production and postharvest operations in order to ensure the integrity of organic products. The requirements for the inclusion of Substances and Criteria for the development of the list of substances shall follow the Philippine National Standards for Organic Aquaculture and the Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods (GL 32-1999). The revision of this PNS was undertaken in order to achieve equivalence with the existing international standards and its future amendment, and takes into consideration the new developments and inclusion of the identified potential species for organic aquaculture. Thus, this PNS identifies minimum requirements on documentation, conversion to organic aquaculture, parallel production, selection of site, interaction with surrounding ecosystem, organic fertilization, aquatic plants, aquatic animal sources/origin, breeding and hatchery management, aquatic animal nutrition and feeding, aquatic animal health and welfare, harvesting, post-harvest handling, transport and processing, storage, and social aspects.