Vibrio sp. isolated from milkfish (Chanos chanos) with opaque eyes
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Several milkfish (Chanos chanos) juveniles polycultured with the Indian prawn (Penaeus indicus) in earthen ponds at the Leganes Station of the Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC, Philippines, manifested eye abnormalities. Signs observed varied from unilateral and bilateral opaque eye coverings/eye balls, exophthalmia and hemorrhagic eyes. A vibrio was predominantly isolated from the opaque eye coverings and eye balls, and it was proved pathogenic to milkfish, Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) and mouse by injection experiments. The opaqueness of eye coverings of milkfish was likewise reproduced by a combination of injury and contact with the pathogen. The bacterium, though seemingly closely related to Vibrio parahaemolyticus or V. alginolyticus, was not identified to any known Vibrio species.
CitationMuroga, K., Lio-Po, G. D., Pitogo, C., & Imada, R. (1984). Vibrio sp. isolated from milkfish (Chanos chanos) with opaque eyes.
PublisherJapanese Society of Fish Pathology
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Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Polyculture of milkfish Chanos chanos (Forsskal) and the red seaweed Gracilariopsis bailinae (Zhang et Xia) in brackish water earthen ponds Growth, net production, and survival rates of milkfish cultured with Gracilariopsis bailinae at two stocking density combinations (T1– 30 fingerlings 100-m−2 pond+1-kg G. bailinae 4-m−2 net cage, T2– 30 fingerlings 100-m−2 pond+2-kg G. bailinae 4-m−2 net cage) in brackish water earthen ponds over four culture periods were determined. The control (T3) was stocked at 30 fingerlings 100-m−2 pond. Specific growth and production rates of G. bailinae were also calculated. There were no significant differences in mean growth, survival, and net production rates of milkfish between the three treatments. Irrespective of stocking singly or in combination with G. bailinae, significantly higher mean growth and mean production rates for milkfish were obtained during the third culture period of year 1 than those obtained from the other culture periods. Survival rates were not significantly different among the four culture periods. There were no significant differences in mean specific growth and mean net production rates between the two stocking densities of G. bailinae. Significantly higher mean specific growth and mean net production rates of red seaweed were also obtained during the third culture period of year 1 than those obtained from other culture periods. The production of milkfish and red seaweed was higher during the dry season. Growth rates of milkfish was positively correlated with temperature and salinity, while net production rates were positively correlated with temperature and total rainfall, but was inversely correlated with dissolved oxygen. G. bailinae growth and net production rates were positively correlated with water temperature and salinity. Results show that milkfish can be polycultured with G. bailinae grown in net cages in brackish water ponds at stocking density combination of 30 fingerlings 100-m−2 pond+1-kg G. bailinae 4-m−2 net cage.