Vibrio sp. isolated from milkfish (Chanos chanos) with opaque eyes
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Several milkfish (Chanos chanos) juveniles polycultured with the Indian prawn (Penaeus indicus) in earthen ponds at the Leganes Station of the Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC, Philippines, manifested eye abnormalities. Signs observed varied from unilateral and bilateral opaque eye coverings/eye balls, exophthalmia and hemorrhagic eyes. A vibrio was predominantly isolated from the opaque eye coverings and eye balls, and it was proved pathogenic to milkfish, Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) and mouse by injection experiments. The opaqueness of eye coverings of milkfish was likewise reproduced by a combination of injury and contact with the pathogen. The bacterium, though seemingly closely related to Vibrio parahaemolyticus or V. alginolyticus, was not identified to any known Vibrio species.
CitationMuroga, K., Lio-Po, G. D., Pitogo, C., & Imada, R. (1984). Vibrio sp. isolated from milkfish (Chanos chanos) with opaque eyes.
PublisherJapanese Society of Fish Pathology
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Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
ArticleT Bagarinao -
UPV Journal of Natural Sciences, 1997 - University of Philippines in the VisayasThis paper reviews the history and status of the milkfish fry fishery and hatchery and examines the issue of fry shortage in some detail. The fry fishery in the Philippines is a well developed industry that uses efficient indigenous technology, employs a quarter-million people, and provides income to local governments through fry ground concessions or fry gathering permits. The fry fishery is determined by where and when milkfish spawn. Fry perishability and the lack of an accurate accounting method shape industry practices and make it difficult to quantify the fry supply. Catch data are lacking, but the milkfish production of 100,000-240,000 mt indicate that fry catches ranged 0.8-2 billion a year during the past 25 years, and averaged at least a billion a year during the last five years. Milkfish farming has intensified in brackishwater ponds (especially in former shrimp farms) and has expanded into freshwater and marine pens and cages. However, there are no data on the farm areas currently under operation under different stocking rates, and fry requirements can only be roughly estimated for a given set of assumptions. If the Philippines double its current total milkfish production to 300,000 mt to support a larger population, then hatcheries would have to provide about one billion fry, in increments of perhaps 100 million a year, over the next decay. About 1000 females and 1000 males are required 100 million fry. Milkfish broodstock and hatchery technologies suitable for the Philippines have long been developed by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, but only recently caught the attention of Filipino hatchery operators and milkfish farmers. On the other hand, milkfish farming is market-driven and profit- motivated and intensification can not prosper when production cost is high and farm-gate price is low. Under these conditions, the fry shortage is not immediate and the private sector has time to establish milkfish broodstocks and hatcheries. Refinement are needed in a fry fishery, hatcheries, grow-out operations, post-harvest processing and marketing – to assure increased production and the sustainability of the milkfish industry.