Linoleic (ω6) and linolenic (ω3) acids in the diet of fingerling milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal)
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Feeding trials were conducted to determine the effects of linoleic acids on growth, survival, fatty acid composition and liver histology of milkfish. Five isocaloric semi-purified diets were formulated, either lipid-free or containing the following lipids: 7% lauric acid (LA), 6% LA + 1% linoleic, 6% LA + 1% linolenic acid, and 6% LA + 0.5% linoleic + 0.05% linolenic acids, and fed to milkfish with an average weight of 1.55 ± 0.25 g. there were no significant differences in growth or survival between fish fed the lipid-free and the LA diets in the five treatments tested. However, growth of fish fed with linoleic and linolenic acids was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that obtained in fish fed lipid-free and LA diets. The best growth response (233%) was attained with fish fed linolenic acid alone. Fatty acid analyses of the total lipid showed that lipid-free and LA diets increased the levels of monoenoic acids in the fish. The addition of linoleic and linolenic acids, alone or in combination, suppressed the levels of these monoenes and increased the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Histological analyses using light microscopy revealed slight abnormalities in the hepatocytes of fish fed lipid-free and LA diets. Both linoleic and linolenic acids are effective for good growth and survival of fingerling milkfish; however, the effect of linolenic acid on the growth of this species is better than that of linoleic acid.
CitationTeruel, M. B., & de la Cruz, M. C. (1988). Linoleic (ω6) and linolenic (ω3) acids in the diet of fingerling milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal).
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Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Conference paperRD Fortes - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research CentreThis paper reviews the work on milkfish (Chanos chanos ) culture techniques conducted from 1973 to 1983 by the Brackishwater Aquaculture Center, the aquaculture research arm of the College of Fisheries, University of the Philippines in the Visayas at Leganes, Iloilo, Philippines. Significant findings and innovative techniques dealing with milkfish fry collection and fingerling production such as those obtained from survival studies of fry during collection, sorting, handling acclimation storage, transport, and rearing in nursery ponds or land-based nurseries are reviewed. Fingerling production utilizing improved methods and techniques is discussed. Results of work on pond culture techniques are presented and discussed.