Quantitative lysine requirement of milkfish (Chanos chanos) juveniles
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A feeding experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative dietary requirement of milkfish juveniles for lysine. Milkfish (Chanoschanos Forsskal) of mean weight 5.92±0.14 g were fed diets containing 7.0, 11.0, 15.0, 19.0, 23.0 and 27.0 g lysine/kg dry diet for 12 weeks. The amino acid test diets contained white fish meal and zein supplemented with crystalline amino acids to provide an amino acid profile similar to milkfish proteins except for lysine. Each of the six diets was fed to four replicate groups of 25 fish in a completely randomized design and at a feeding rate of 5% of the fish body weight per day. On the basis of the growth response, lysinerequirement of juvenile milkfish was found to be 20 g/kg diet. This value corresponds to 4.0% when expressed as a percentage of the dietary protein. Survival (94–97%) was consistently high in all treatments. Except for loss of appetite resulting in low food intake and depressed growth, no nutritional deficiency signs were observed in fish given the lysine-deficient diets.
CitationBorlongan, I. G., & Benitez, L. V. (1990). Quantitative lysine requirement of milkfish (Chanos chanos) juveniles.
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Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
ArticleRM Coloso & IG Borlongan -
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1999 - Springer VerlagOrganotin pesticides, triphenyltin acetate or hydroxide have long been used as an inexpensive method to control the population of brackish water shails Cerithidea cingulata in the pond culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal), and important food fish in the Philippines. The use of organotin pesticeds has been banned for several years now because the chemical renders the soil sterile, is nonbiodegradable and bioaccumulates, and is hazardous to humans. Despite the ban, the clandestine use of the pesticide in milkfish ponds continues to threaten the environment and humans.