Comparison of the silo and broadcast methods of applying organic fertilizer in milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal), ponds
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The efficacy of the silo and broadcast methods of applying organic fertilizers in ponds for the production of pond-floor, microbenthic biological complex, a natural food source known as lablab, was tested in 1-ha ponds, replicated thrice in time. Although there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in milkfish growth, survival and production between the two treatments tested, after 90 days production tended to be higher in ponds prepared with the silo method. Advantages of the silo method are that it is less laborious, cheaper, and less time consuming than the broadcast method and results in consistent lablab growth until the end of the culture period.
CitationGerochi, D. D., Lijauco, M. M., & Baliao, D. D. (1988). Comparison of the silo and broadcast methods of applying organic fertilizer in milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal), ponds.
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Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Book chapterCB Santiago - In CS Lee, MS Gordon & WO Watanabe (Eds.), Aquaculture of milkfish (Chanos chanos): state of the art, 1986 - Oceanic InstituteMilkfish culture is gradually shifting from the traditional extensive aquaculture system, where in the fish depends mainly on natural food for growth, to semi=intensive or intensive culture systems in which additional inputs such as formulated diets are used to increase fish production (Chen, 1981). This paper reviews present information on digestive organs and enzymes, food and feeding habits of the age groups, digestibility of feedstuffs, and nutrient requirements for milkfish.