Occurrence and distribution of milkfish larvae, Chanos chanos off the western coast of Panay Island, Philippines
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The occurence and distribution of milkfish larvae (∼3–17 mm TL) off western Panay Island, Philippines are reported based on 594 plankton net tows made in April and May 1980. Forty-two tows yielded 44 larvae, together with 1149 milkfish eggs by 98 tows. About 70% of the larvae of all stages came from stations less than 100 m deep and 1–2 km from land. Younger larvae up to 6 mm and about 1 week old occurred at stations of various distances from shore, while older larvae occurred only near shore. About 48% of larvae of all stages were caught by surface tows; younger larvae occurred also in deeper layers (20 and 30 m). Larval abundance increased towards May. Younger larvae tended to occur during the quarter moon periods and older ones during the full and new moon periods.
Contribution No. 191 of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
CitationBagarinao, T., & Kumagai, S. (1987). Occurrence and distribution of milkfish larvae, Chanos chanos off the western coast of Panay Island, Philippines.
We thank R.J. Salde and W.R. Villaver and the crew of RV SEAFDEC II for assistance during the survey. We are greatly indebted to J. Leis of the Australian Museum, T. Senta of Nagasaki University, and H. Ida of Kitasato University for critical review and improvement of the manuscript. This study was partially supported by the International Development Research Centre, (IDRC, Canada) through a grant to the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department under Project 3-P-78-0033 (Phase II).
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Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Yolk resorption, onset of feeding and survival potential of larvae of three tropical marine fish species reared in the hatchery T Bagarinao -
Marine Biology, 1986 - Springer VerlagThis paper provides basic early life-history information on milkfish (Chanos chanos), seabass (Lates calcarifer) and rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) which may explain in part the observed differences in their survival performance in the hatchery. Egg size, larval size, amount of yolk and oil reserves and mouth size are all greater in milkfish than in seabass, and greater in the latter than in rabbitfish. During the first 24 h after hatching, rabbitfish larvae grow much faster than milkfish and seabass larvae at similar ambient temperatures (range 26°–30°C, mean about 28°C). The eyes become fully pigmented and the mouths open earlier in seabass and rabbitfish (32–36 h from hatching) than in milkfish (54 h). Seabass larvae learn to feed the earliest. Yolk is completely resorbed at 120 h from hatching in milkfish, and yolk plus oil at 120 h in seabass and 72 h in rabbitfish at 26° to 30°C. Milkfish and seabass larvae have more time than rabbitfish to initiate external feeding before the endogenous reserves are completely resorbed. Delayed feeding experiments showed that 50% of unfed milkfish larvae die at 78 h and all die at 150 h from hatching. Milkfish larvae fed within 54 to 78 h after hatching had improved survival times: 50% mortality occurred at 96 to 120 h, and 10 to 13% survived beyond 150 h. Unfed seabass larvae all died at 144 h, while 6 to 13% of those fed within 32 to 56 h after hatching survived beyond 144 h and well into the subsequent weeks. Unfed rabbitfish larvae all died at 88 h, while 7 to 12% of those fed within 32 to 56 h after hatching survived beyond 88 h. A delay in initial feeding of more than 24 h after eye pigmentation and opening of the mouth may be fatal for all three species.