The effects of water hardness on the hatching and viability of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) eggs
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An investigation was conducted to establish water hardness concentration for optimum hatching of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) eggs. Eggs were incubated for 19 h at 26.5°C at six levels of water hardness: 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mg/l CaCO3. Water absorption at 100–200 mg/l CaCO3 caused eggs to burst prematurely and minimal water absorption occurred at 600 mg/l CaCO3. Chloride concentration at 0 and 6 h post-fertilization was significantly related to egg hatchability. Total ammonia-nitrogen at 6 h, pH at 6 h, magnesium hardness at 18 h and chlorides at 18 h significantly influence viability of larvae. A water hardness of 300–500 mg/l CaCO3 is recommended for the successful hatching of silver carp eggs.
CitationGonzal, A. C., Aralar, E. V., & Pavico, J. M. F. (1987). The effects of water hardness on the hatching and viability of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) eggs.
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