Egg cannibalism by milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) spawners in circular floating net cages
MetadataShow full item record
Cited times in Scopus
Egg cannibalism by milkfish spawners in a circular floating net cage was investigated. The cage was lined with a fine mesh hapa net to retain spawned eggs and to prevent the entry of fish egg predators. Water samples were collected from the surface (0 m), middle (1.5 m), and bottom (3.0 m) of a 10 m diameter by 3 m deep floating net cage at the time of initial detection of spawning (0 min) and at 30, 60, 120 and 240 min thereafter. The mean number of spawned eggs at the surface significantly decreased (P<0.05) 60 min after spawning and very few eggs were recovered 240 min later. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the mean number of spawned eggs collected from the middle and bottom of the net cage at various times after spawning. Eggs were found in the digestive tract of all milkfish sampled (n=6) at about 5 h after spawning, indicating that captive milkfish eat their own eggs. It is recommended that spontaneously spawned milkfish eggs should be collected immediately after spawning to avoid loss by egg cannibalism.
CitationToledo, J. D., & Gaitan, A. G. (1992). Egg cannibalism by milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) spawners in circular floating net cages.
- Journal Articles 
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Conference paperG Lio-Po - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research CentreAlthough the history of Chanos chanos culture has been quite long, reports of major epizootics have been few. Trained manpower and disease diagnostic services in most milkfish growing areas have not been readily available. Hence, earlier reports of etiologic agents of these epizootics were limited mostly to direct microscopic examination of specimens. Significant disease cases reported were attributed to bacterial, myotic, parasitic, and toxic causes. Bacterial infections, primarily due to Vibrio sp., have been frequently associated with mortality. To a lesser, extent fungal infections have also been reported. Intoxication of stock in freshwater systems by Microcystis toxins has caused massive fish kills in Laguna de Bay, Philippines. In most instances, affected fish were predisposed by environmental stress incurred in handling storage and transport. The fry and fingerling stages seemed severely affected compared with the older stages. Control of these infections must include assessment of fish husbandry practices first, before the use of chemotherapeutic agents like antibiotics is considered.