A survey of chemical and biological products used in intensive prawn farms in the Philippines
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With attractive prawn export prices and the availability of hatchery fry and commercial feeds, Philippine aquaculture has experienced a shift from milkfish to prawn Penaeus monodon and an intensification from traditional and extensive prawn culture to higher stocking densities. This paper features the results of a survey of intensive prawn farms (n = 21) in Western Visayas and Northern Mindanao conducted in 1990. Average farm size, production, feeding and water management are described. To solve the self-pollution characteristic of intensive ponds, the farms utilized some 40 chemical and biological products; at least another 35 were available in the market at the time of the study. These include therapeutants and disinfectants, soil conditioners, bacteria-enzyme preparations, algicides and piscicides, plankton growth promoters, and feed additives. The possible ecological effects of effluents drained into adjacent marine waters are discussed; some recommendations are given.
CitationPrimavera, J. Honculada., Lavilla-Pitogo, C. R., Ladja, J. M., & de la Peña, M. R. (1993). A survey of chemical and biological products used in intensive prawn farms in the Philippines.
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Conference paperRP Subasinghe, U Barg & A Tacon - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentThis paper outlines the opening introductory presentation made at the “Expert Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia,” which was held 20-22 May 1996 at the SEAFDEC facilities in Tigbauan, Iloilo, the Philippines. Its purpose is to provide a balanced and realistic perspective on the needs, issues and challenges with respect to the use of chemicals in Asian aquaculture. We hope to assist participants in identifying development opportunities and in differentiating real hazards from hypothetical threats to cultured organisms, end-users and the environment as a consequence of chemical use. We do not attempt to provide answers to issues related to chemicals in Asian aquaculture, but rather offer some basic directives and opportunities to the workshop participants to assist them in their discussions and in the compilation of realistic recommendations.
Water quality in Imbang river, Negros Occidental: effluents and pollutant loads from agriculture, sugar mills, households, and shrimp farms GA Gonzales, HJ Gonzales, RC Sanares & ET Taberna - In TU Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of AgricultureAn ecological assessment of Imbang River in Negros Occidental was undertaken from December 1992 to February 1995. The effluents from sugar mills, households, shrimp farms, sugarcane plantations and rice fields were characterized and their pollutant loads estimated. Water quality and invertebrate assemblages were analyzed at several sites along the river to determine the environmental status. Results showed significant seasonal and site variations in water quality along Imbang River. The dry season, coinciding with the milling season, was the more critical time of the year as water quality tended to deteriorate. The segments of the river near the sugar mills and households had the poorest water quality. Sugar mill effluents had high water temperature (average 33oC but as high as 50oC), low dissolved oxygen, high total solids, the highest settleable solids (average 2.5 and as high as 17 m/l), and the highest biochemical oxygen demand (average 259 ppm but as high as 14,800 ppm BOD). Domestic effluents had low pH, high ammonia, very high BOD, plus detergents or surfactants and high levels of fecal coliform bacteria. Agricultural runoff had high nitrate, high total solids, and the highest total suspended solids (average 296 ppm but as high as 5,095 ppm TSS). Shrimp ponds used saline water of average 23 ppt, and had the highest total solids (average 23,456 ppm and as high as 57,400 ppm). By far the major contributor of pollutant loads into Imbang River was agriculture, due to its huge areal extent and huge volume of water use and run-off. Agricultural run-off carried the highest annual loads of 7,858 kg phosphate; 6,495 kg ammonia; 794 kg nitrite; 67,212 kg nitrate; 16,987 metric tons settleable solids; 16,800,000 mt total solids, and 11,890,000 mt total suspended solids; but only 297 mt BOD. Sugar mill effluents had the highest BOD load (1,583 mt/yr) and also had high nutrient loads. Household effluents contributed the second largest loads of solids next to agriculture, and also added surfactants (966 kg/yr) and fecal coliforms into the river. The six shrimp farms at the lower reaches of Imbang River were a minor contributor of pollutants into the river, annually adding about 891 kg ammonia; 1,077 kg phosphate; and 181,325 mt total solids.
Conference paperDP Weston - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentMany aquaculture chemicals are, by their very nature, biocidal, and may be released to the surrounding environment at toxic concentrations either through misuse, or in some cases, even by following generally accepted procedures for use. Thus, there is a potential for mortality of nontarget organisms. Illustrations are provided of three classes of aquaculture chemicals and their effects on non-target biota: 1) use of a carbaryl pesticide and mortality of non-target invertebrates; 2) use of an organophosphate parasiticide and suspected effects on nearby biota; and 3) effects of antibacterial residues in aquatic sediments on the associated microbial community. Efforts to assess the risks posed by aquaculture chemicals are often frustrated by a lack of information on environmental fate and effects, and data needs to resolve this situation are identified.