Natural spawning, egg and fry production of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal), broodstock reared in concrete tanks
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Gonadal maturation, rematuration, and spawning of nine- (1982 stock) and ten-year-old (1981 stock) milkfish reared in 150 and 200 m3 concrete tanks were observed in 1990 and 1991. From 23 September to 9 November 1990, the 1981 stock spawned 15 times with an average daily collection of 61,000 ± 21,000 eggs. From 4 larval rearing trials, the mean overall survival rate (from eggs to 21 -day-old fry) was 9.68 ± 4.3%. From 25 Aril to 31 October 1991, the stock spawned a totaf of 108 times. Mean daily egg collection increasef to 305,000 ± 32,000. Successful rearing trials conducted during the latter part of the spawning season had a mean overall survival rate of 17 ± 3% (n = 17) indicating that mass fry production techniques can be improved. Spawning of milkfish broodstock in concrete tanks provides an alternative to other existing methods of seed production.
Preliminary results were partially reported in SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture 12(4): 1-3 (1990).
CitationEmata, A. C., & Marte, C. L. (1994). Natural spawning, egg and fry production of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal), broodstock reared in concrete tanks.
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Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
BookM Ahmed, GA Magnayon-Umali, RA Valmonte-Santos, J Toledo, N Lopez & F Torres Jr. - 2001 - ICLARM - The World Fish Center
Series: ICLARM Technical Report; 58Bangus or milkfish is the national fish of Philippine. Bangus culture is traditionally based on fry collected from the wild. Due to growing demand for fry the bangus industry. The Philippines Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), the Philippine Council of Aquatic and Marine Research and Development (PCAMRD), the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre (SEFDEC) and ICLARM embarked of the conditions prevailing in the milkfish fry sector, project workshop was held in 1999. The present report is the outcome of workshop. Report highlights on the issues milkfish production, fry production in hatcheries, fry gathering activities, marketing issues, management of fry gathering grounds and its marketing and the related policy issues.