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dc.contributor.authorPrimavera, Jurgenne Honculada
dc.date.accessioned2013-03-06T01:19:15Z
dc.date.available2013-03-06T01:19:15Z
dc.date.issued1995
dc.identifier.citationPrimavera, J. H. (1995). Mangroves and brackishwater pond culture in the Philippines. Hydrobiologia, 295(1-3), 303–309.en
dc.identifier.issn0018-8158
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10862/1488
dc.description.abstractAround 50% of mangrove loss in the Philippines can be traced to brackishwater pond construction. The decrease in mangroves from 450 000 ha in 1920 to 132 500 ha in 1990 has been accompanied by expansion of culture ponds to 223 000 ha in 1990. The history of fishpond development in the country includes a government-sponsored fishpond boom in the 1950-g and 1960s, the proconservation decade of the 1970s followed by a shrimp fever in the 1980s. Production from brackisshwater ponds has increased from 15 900 mt worth P7.6 million in 1938 to 267 000 mt valued at P6.5 billion in 1990. On the other hand, the maximum valuation of over $11 000 ha−1 yr−1 for unmanaged and managed mangrove forests makes them economically on par with the most profitable pond farming systems. The loss of mangrove systems and their varied goods and services is the single most important consequence of brackishwater pond culture in the Philippines. Moreover, intensive shrimp farming is associated with other ecological and socioeconomic effects such as pollution of coastal waters and decline in domestic food crops. New legislation and enforcement of existing laws, conservation of remaining mangroves, massive rehabilitation of denuded mangrove areas, and promotion of sustainable aquaculture and fisheries are recommended.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherSpringer Verlagen
dc.subjectPhilippinesen
dc.titleMangroves and brackishwater pond culture in the Philippinesen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/BF00029137
dc.citation.volume295
dc.citation.issue1-3
dc.citation.spage303
dc.citation.epage310
dc.citation.journalTitleHydrobiologiaen
seafdecaqd.library.callnumberVF SJ 0495
seafdecaqd.databank.controlnumber1995-34
dc.subject.asfaAquacultureen
dc.subject.asfaAquaculture developmenten
dc.subject.asfaBrackish wateren
dc.subject.asfaBrackishwater aquacultureen
dc.subject.asfaConstructionen
dc.subject.asfaEnvironmental effectsen
dc.subject.asfaFish cultureen
dc.subject.asfaMangrove swampsen
dc.subject.asfaPond cultureen
dc.subject.asfaPondsen
dc.subject.asfaShrimp cultureen


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