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dc.contributor.authorGapasin, R. S. J.
dc.contributor.authorBombeo, R.
dc.contributor.authorLavens, P.
dc.contributor.authorSorgeloos, P.
dc.contributor.authorNelis, H.
dc.identifier.citationGapasin, R. S. J., Bombeo, R., Lavens, P., Sorgeloos, P., & Nelis, H. (1998). Enrichment of live food with essential fatty acids and vitamin C: effects on milkfish (Chanos chanos) larval performance. Aquaculture, 162(3-4), 269-286.en
dc.description.abstractThe effects of essential fatty acids (EFA) and vitamin C-enriched live food on growth, survival, resistance to salinity stress and incidence of deformity in milkfish larvae reared in tanks were investigated. Larvae were either fed rotifers cultured on Chlorella sp. and newly hatched Artemia nauplii (control), highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA)-enriched rotifers and Artemia nauplii or HUFA+vitamin C-enriched rotifers and Artemia nauplii. Milkfish growth in outdoor nursery ponds was also assessed to compare with growth in indoor tanks. Milkfish fed rotifers/Artemia enriched with HUFA (32–48 mg dry weight, DW) or HUFA+vitamin C (33–45 mg DW) exhibited significantly (P<0.05) higher growth than those given unenriched live food (24–27 mg DW) after 40 days of culture. Growth of milkfish in nursery ponds (albeit lower in stocking density) showed similar trends as those reared in tanks. When subjected to salinity stress (Day 25), mortality of the HUFA+vitamin C-treated fish and HUFA-treated fish were significantly lower (P<0.05) than the control fish. Survival of 26-day old milkfish, however, did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among the treatment groups. Forty-day-old milkfish fed HUFA+vitamin C-enriched live food had significantly lower (P<0.05) incidence of opercular deformity (mainly cleft branchiostegal membrane) (8.4–14.7%) compared with those given HUFA-enriched (15.8–23.5%) or unenriched (27.3–33.5%) live food. Results demonstrated the effect of HUFA enrichment in enhancing milkfish larval growth and resistance to salinity stress but not overall survival. Moreover, HUFA and ascorbate supplementation decreased but did not totally eliminate incidence of opercular deformity in milkfish larvae.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was financially supported by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center-Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD) and the Belgian Administration for Development Cooperation (BADC) under the Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Center, University of Ghent (LAARC/RUG) and SEAFDEC/AQD Collaborative Project. The able help of the Belgian junior expert mission is appreciated with special mention to D. Delbare, T. DeWolfe, B. Vanderberghe, G. Van Stappen, G. Merchie and R. Bijnens. The authors wish to thank G. Van de Wiele and P. Hoste for the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and vitamin C analyses, respectively. Thanks are also due to the SEAFDEC’s Centralized Analytical Laboratory (CAL) for the water quality analyses, D. Chavez for the rotifer culture, T. Hautea, Jr. for providing the nursery ponds and V. Balinas for the statistical analysis. The excellent technical assistance of F. Pudadera, Jr. is gratefully acknowledged.en
dc.subjectChanos chanosen
dc.subjectEssential fatty acidsen
dc.subjectStress resistanceen
dc.titleEnrichment of live food with essential fatty acids and vitamin C: effects on milkfish (Chanos chanos) larval performanceen
seafdecaqd.library.callnumberVF SJ 0576
dc.subject.asfaDietary deficienciesen
dc.subject.asfaFeed compositionen
dc.subject.asfaFish cultureen
dc.subject.asfaFish diseasesen
dc.subject.asfaFood additivesen
dc.subject.asfaSalinity effectsen
dc.subject.asfaSalinity toleranceen
dc.subject.asfaVitamin Cen

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