Mangroves as nurseries: Shrimp populations in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats
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A total of 4845 penaeids belonging to nine species—Metapenaeus anchistus, M. ensis, M. moyebi, M. philippinensis, Penaeus merguiensis, P. monodon, P. semisulcatus, P. latisulcatus and Metapenaeopsis palmensis—were collected by pocket seine monthly over 13 months from mangrove and non-mangrove sites in Guimaras, Philippines. The restricted distribution of the three dominant species—M. ensisandP. merguiensisto the brackish water riverine mangrove, andM. anchistusto the high-salinity island mangrove and tidal flat—is probably related to different salinity and substrate preferences. Abundance and size composition of the major species suggest a strong nursery role for the riverine mangrove (high juvenile densities, relatively small sizes year-round), limited nursery use of the island mangrove (fewer shrimps, larger size ranges, presence of maturing females) and a non-nursery use (e.g. foraging) in the tidal flat. Penaeid recruitment to the river had two peaks in November and May when the average salinity was ∼20 (Practical Salinity Scale) and water temperatures were high (30–31 °C). The spatio-temporal pattern of penaeid species in Guimaras shows partitioning across habitats and seasonal recruitment influenced by physical and biological factors.
CitationPrimavera, J. H. (1998). Mangroves as nurseries: Shrimp populations in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats.
Mangrove swamps; Marine crustaceans; Nursery grounds; Estuaries; Juveniles; Recruitment; Metapenaeus anchistus; Metapenaeus ensis; Metapenaeus moyebi; Metapenaeus philippinensis; Penaeus latisulcatus; Penaeus merguiensis; Penaeus monodon; Penaeus palmensis; Penaeus semisulcatus; Philippines, Panay I., Iloilo, Guimaras I.; Philippines; Banana prawn; Giant tiger prawn; Greasyback shrimp; Mayebi shrimp; Western king prawn; Penaeidae; Prawns and shrimps
This study was partially funded by the Department of Agriculture Fisheries Sector Program and the Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development. Thanks are due to the following: J. Lebata and G. Unlayao for field and laboratory assistance; W. Dall and D. Vance of CSIRO and W. L. Long of QDPI, Australia for help in taxonomy; M. A. R. Juinio-Meñez of the U.P. Marine Science Institute, T. Bagarinao of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, and W. Yap for constructive comments; E. Ledesma for preparing the figures; and L. Espada for the statistical analyses.
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BookFD Apud, PL Torres Jr. & JH Primavera - 1983 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 5The manual provides information on the culture of shrimps and prawns. Considerations regarding farm sites, pond specifications, pond ecosystems and differences between prawn and milkfish culture are examined. Seed supply, farm management practices and economic aspects are detailed.
Distribution pattern of shrimps and fish among Avicennia and Rhizophora microhabitats in the Pagbilao mangroves, Philippines P Rönnbäck, M Troell, N Kautsky & JH Primavera -
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 1999 - ElsevierFor sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems, there is a pressing need to increase our knowledge of fish and invertebrates associated with this system. This study sampled microhabitats (89–258 m2) inside the mangrove forest at Pagbilao, the Philippines, on two consecutive spring tides using stake nets. Distribution patterns of shrimps and fish were compared among four microhabitats that differed in dominant mangrove species (Avicennia marina, A. officinalis or Rhizophora apiculata), structural complexity of the root system, and proximity to open water habitat. A 5 to 6-year-old replanted Rhizophora microhabitat was also sampled to study faunal recolonization following replantation. The mean (±SE) density of the shrimp community was 1·5±0·2 shrimps m−2, dominated by Palaemonidae, followed by Acetes sp., Penaeus merguiensis and Metapenaeus ensis . The highest shrimp density was observed in the replanted Rhizophora habitat, which also had the highest structural complexity. The mean (±SE) density and biomass of the fish community was 5·1±2·0 fish m−2and 10·4±3·3 g m−2, respectively, dominated by Ambassis kopsi, A. urotaenia and Atherinomorus balabacensis. The fish community preferred the pneumatophore (Avicennia) microhabitats to the prop root (Rhizophora) habitats. Highest fish abundance and biomass were observed in the most inland habitat, which also lacked larger (total length >100 mm) carnivorous fish. The results demonstrate the extensive use of intertidal mangrove forests by vagile fauna, as well as the successful recolonization by shrimps and fish of replanted Rhizophora habitat. The role of mangroves as predation refuges, based on the distribution pattern of shrimps and fish, is discussed. Sampling strategies in mangrove intertidal habitat are also outlined.
ArticleJH Primavera -
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 1997 - ElsevierThe effect of habitat structure and substratum on predation of the greasyback shrimp Metapenaeus ensis (De Haan), white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis De Man and tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius by sea bass Lates calcarifer Bloch and mangrove snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal) was evaluated. The shrimp juveniles measured 6–15 mm in carapace length; fish measured 6.5–12.5 cm in standard length; structure types were pneumatophores of the mangrove Sonneratia griffithii Kurz and dried coconut leaf bracts; structure densities were 0, 32 and 98 pneumatophores per tank; and sediment particle sizes were pebbles, sand-granules and silt–sand. Predation on shrimp was significantly higher in controls or bare sand (48.7%) than among pneumatophores (29.9%), but not among leaf bracts (43.5%). Shrimp mortality was also significantly higher on bare sand (72.9%) compared to medium-density (54.2%), but not high-density (68.8%), pneumatophores. Fish predation on the burying shrimp M. ensis was affected by predator type but not by sediment size. The generally higher predation rates of snapper may be due to their habit of leaving unconsumed pieces of shrimp, whereas sea bass which devour whole prey require fewer shrimp to reach satiation. Moreover, the presence of structures did not affect sea bass behaviour of chasing prey among pneumatophores and under leaf bracts, but reduced predation by the relatively passive snapper. Predation rates among pneumatophores vs. control, and among medium-density pneumatophores vs. bare sand, were lower for P. monodon but not P. merguiensis. This may be related to the greater and more frequent use of (laboratory) shelters by juvenile tiger shrimp compared to white shrimp. The results demonstrate that the effective provision of shelter depends not only on structure type and density but on the behaviour of predator and prey as well. The use of mangrove structures (pneumatophores) by juvenile shrimp as refuge from predation is also documented for the first time.