Development of larval diets for milkfish (Chanos chanos)
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This study aimed to develop nutritionally balanced and costeffective processed diets for milkfish larvae (Chanos chanos). Two larval diets (feed A and feed B) were formulated and prepared to contain 45% protein and 10% lipid. Several larval diet preparations were tried such as microbound/unpelleted (freeze-dried), microbound /pelleted (oven-dried) and microbound/flaked (drum-dried) and assessed in terms of feed particle size and buoyancy, water stability and feed acceptability. The preparation that gave the best particle size and buoyancy as well as good water stability was prepared as the microbound diet (using K-carrageenan as a binder) and flaked using a drum drier. A series of feeding experiments were conducted to determine the growth and survival of milkfish larvae reared on various feeding schemes using these processed larval diets which were fed either solely or in combination with live feed. Larvae in control treatments were reared on live foods such as Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia nauplii. Larvae were observed to ingest the diets, indicating that the feeds had suitable physical characteristics and were attractive to the larvae. The overall results of the feeding trials showed that the artificial diets could be fed to milkfish larvae in combination with Brachionus rotifers starting on day 2 or day 8, and could be fed alone starting from day 15. These promising results would reduce the dependence of milkfish larvae on live feed and would have significant economic benefits in the form of simplified milkfish hatchery procedures.
CitationBorlongan, I. G., Marte, C. L., & Nocillado, J. N. (2000). Development of larval diets for milkfish (Chanos chanos).
This research was supported by a grant from the Fisheries Sector Program (FSP) of the Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture, Philippines.
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Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Production of hatchery-bred early juvenile milkfish (Chanos chanos) in nursery ponds through supplemental feeding CJ Jaspe, MSM Golez, RM Coloso & CMA Caipang -
Animal Biology and Animal Husbandry, 2012 - Bioflux SocietyHatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskål, 1755) (average weight of 0.45 g) were stocked in a 500 m2 nursery pond at a density of 16 juveniles/m2 during the dry months (March-May). The early juveniles were reared for two months with natural food followed by supplemental feeding. Upon the harvest the fish reached an average weight of 9.30 g and a survival rate of 86.9%. A feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 1.08 was attained, with specific growth rate (SGR) of 4.96%/day. The high survival rate and good production could be attributed to the time of the year when the nursery production trial was conducted. The nursery of milkfish in ponds during the summer months ensures sufficient supply of natural food and stable water quality during the crucial phase in the nursery production. This strategy of rearing early juveniles (<1 g) of milkfish in nursery ponds at high stocking densities using a combination of natural food and supplemental feeding could be one of the alternative approaches in the nursery production of this fish.