Survival of captive milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskal broodstock subjected to handling and transport
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The survival of milkfish broodstock (body weight range 1–11 kg) was determined until 30 days after handling and transport in open tanks or in sealed oxygenated bags containing chilled sea water (20–25 °C). Maintenance of cool sea water was achieved by the gradual addition of ice chunks or frozen gel packs. A survival rate of 50% after transporting fish at a loading density of 45 kg m−3 for 4 h in open tanks was not significantly different from those that were handled but not transported (86%). Similarly, survival rates (67–83%) among broodstock confined for 8 h in chilled sea water at 40 and 60 kg m−3 were not significantly different from each other or from a group not subjected to confinement. Nevertheless, low dissolved oxygen (DO) and accumulation of total ammonia–nitrogen beginning 1 h after transport and confinement may be responsible for low survival rates of milkfish in open tanks. In contrast, all milkfish survived 10 h of overland transport in sealed bags with chilled and diluted (28 g L−1) sea water. Likewise, all milkfish survived after being bagged and immediately transferred to a communal rearing tank, or bagged and placed in a styrofoam box for 10 h. Except for total ammonia–nitrogen levels, which increased slightly (0.7–0.8 mg L−1) above background, seawater temperature (20–24 °C), salinity (28 g L−1) and DO (6 to > 20 mg mL−1) titres in transport bags were maintained during the 10-h test. The effectiveness of handling and transporting milkfish broodstock in sealed bags containing chilled sea water was verified in actual field trials. Spawning of sexually mature milkfish subjected to these stressors was not impaired. These results demonstrate that mortalities of large milkfish broodstock can be minimized when fish are handled and transported in sealed oxygenated bags containing chilled sea water.
CitationGarcia, L. M. B., Hilomen-Garcia, G. V., & Emata, A. C. (2000). Survival of captive milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskal broodstock subjected to handling and transport.
The assistance of staff at the Igang Marine Substation and the Big Hatchery in Tigbauan is acknowledged. Additional assistance was provided by Editha Panes, Pastor Denusta, Sherlito Balacanta, Fernando Sarmiento, Tomas Gonzalez, who also drew the figures, and the crew of M/B Rosary II and M/B Juracell. Study code Br-06-F96T.
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Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
BookThis publication describes the various aspects of milkfish production in the Philippines. It covers these areas 1) technology development from a historical perspective, 2) milkfish seed production 3) grow-out in brackishwater ponds 4) grow-out in pens and cages 5)milkfish processing.