The seasonality and economic feasibility of cultivating Kappaphycus alvarezii in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines
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Vegetative thalli of brown and green Kappaphycus alvarezii were cultivated in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines, over 60- and 90-day periods using hanging-long line (HL), fixed off-bottom (FB), and hanging long line–fixed off-bottom (HL–FB) methods to determine the daily growth rate and yield. A completely randomized design experiment with six replicates of 5-m line cultivation rope was used in the study. An economic analysis was prepared to determine the viability of the culture systems used. To determine the effect of strain, culture technique, culture days and culture month on the daily growth rate and yield, a combination of these different factors was treated as a single treatment. Results show that at 60-day culture period, daily growth rate and yield in all techniques were lowest in July–August and highest in January–February. Higher growth rate (2.3–4.2% day−1) and yield (3.6–15.8 fresh weight kg m−1 line−1) were obtained from September to February. Significant differences (P<0.05) in growth rate and yield were determined between culture months. At 90-day culture period, there were no significant differences in growth rate and yield between culture months; however, a significant difference was found between culture techniques. The average production (dry weight kg crop−1) of K. alvarezii when grown at 60-day culture period during lean and peak months using HL, FB and HL–FB techniques ranged from 421 to 3310 kg with HL–FB the highest and FB the lowest. Net income, return on investment (ROI) and payback period were all positive during peak months, but negative values were obtained during lean months. Only seaweed grown on HL technique during the peak months at 90-day culture period showed positive income, ROI and payback period. The seasonality of cultivating K. alvarezii is shown in this present study. This paper further shows the best culture technique to be adopted at certain months of the year to produce the highest yield and income.
CitationHurtado, A. Q., Agbayani, R. F., Sanares, R., & de Castro-Mallare, M. T. R. (2001). The seasonality and economic feasibility of cultivating Kappaphycus alvarezii in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines.
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The potential effect of greenwater technology on water quality in the pond culture of Penaeus monodon Fabricius Whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused severe production drops in the shrimp industry. Numerous scientific manuscripts deal with WSSV epidemiology, but reports on minimizing disease outbreaks through ecological means are rare. Industry stakeholders resorted to various innovative techniques to recover from heavy economic losses. Some shrimp farmers in the Philippines claimed that ‘greenwater’ (GW) technology could prevent disease outbreaks due to WSSV. The efficiency of the GW technology was evaluated by comparing three ponds using the GW culture technique with three ponds not using it. WSSV was detected only in one of the GW ponds and not in the non-GW ponds. No WSSV disease outbreak occurred, and no conclusion could be reached. In GW ponds, available soil sulphur content was lower; and in water, the observed counts of luminous bacteria were lower and counts of Chlorophyceae were higher. Chlorophyceae, i.e. algae, enhanced nutrient uptake in effluent streams resulting in improved water quality in Penaeus monodon Fabricius culture ponds. This suggests that the use of the GW technique to culture P. monodon improved water quality.
Economics of cultivating Kappaphycus alvarezii using the fixed-bottom line and hanging-long line methods in Panagatan Cays, Caluya, Antique, Philippines A socio-economic survey was conducted among the Kappaphycus alvarezii planters of Panagatan Cay, Caluya, Antique, Philippines to determine some social information, farming practices and cost and returns of farming the seaweed. Cultivation is dominated by brown and green morphotypes using the fixed-bottom and hanging-long line methods. Approximately 9.3 t d. wt ha−1 and 7.2 t d. wt ha−1 is produced from fixed-bottom and hanging-long lines methods, respectively, after 60–90 days of culture. The former method requires a working capital and total investment of P7490 and P1870, respectively, compared to the hanging-long line which requires P8455 and P25464, respectively (US$ 1 = P26). A higher total revenue (P139500), net income ((P187895), and return of investment 1002%), but a shorter pay back period (0.10 years) were obtained in fixed-bottom than in hanging-long line. A lower total expenses were incurred in fixed-bottom (P21354) than in hanging-long line (P24566). The farming of K. alvarezii in this area has brought tremendous economic impact to the marginal fishermen.