Antibiotic resistance of bacteria from shrimp ponds
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The incidence of antibiotic resistance was compared in bacteria isolated from pond water, pond sediment, water and sediment from the receiving environment (area where water from pond drains, which is 0 and 50 m away from the exit gate, in this study) and cultured shrimp from ponds that have not used any antimicrobials, ponds that have previously used antimicrobials and ponds that are currently using oxolinic acid. Most of the bacteria isolated from all sample and pond type were Vibrios. Among the Vibrios, V. harveyi were most commonly isolated. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) to at least two antimicrobials was highest in ponds currently using oxolinic acid (24% of bacteria isolated from such ponds), followed by those that have previously used antimicrobials (19%) and the least was those from ponds that have not used any antimicrobials (17%). The lowest incidence of antibiotic resistance was observed in ponds that have not used any antimicrobials (41% of the isolates from such ponds). Among the individual antibiotics, incidence of resistance to oxytetracycline was highest (4.3% of the total number of isolates) followed by furazolidone (1.6%), oxolinic acid (1%) and chloramphenicol (0.66%). Resistance to individual chemotherapeutants did not reflect the pattern of antimicrobial use with ponds that have previously used antimicrobials showing the highest incidence of resistance to one antimicrobial (12% of total isolates from such ponds). Resistance to both oxolinic acid and furazolidone (15% of total number of isolates) was highest compared to other antimicrobial resistance profiles (1–12%). Multiple antimicrobial resistance and intermediate reaction to at least one antimicrobial are associated with antimicrobial use.
CitationTendencia, E. A., & de la Peña, L. D. (2001). Antibiotic resistance of bacteria from shrimp ponds.
The authors wish to thank the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center for funding the study under study code FH 02 C97T.
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Conference paperH Sako - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterLosses of cultured marine and freshwater fishes due to diseases averaged about 20,000 tons each year or 6% of the aquaculture production in Japan in 1980-1991. During this last decade, bacterial diseases have been responsible for most of the losses. Three trends are evident from epidemiological data. First, diseases caused by bacteria with multiple drug resistance are prevalent, and these are difficult to overcome by chemotherapy. Second, parasitic diseases and viral diseases that are practically impossible to cure are increasing. Third, some diseases seem to originate in juveniles (seed) imported from other countries. Further research should focus on: (1) improving dietary and environmental conditions, (2) giving the host animals resistance against disease through methods such as vaccination, and (3) developing diagnostic and disinfection procedures for epidemics. Active exchange of information is necessary to prevent, or alleviate the effects of, the spread of diseases through international export and import of juveniles.
Antibacterial chemotherapy in aquaculture: review of practice, associated risks and need for action V Inglis - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis paper briefly reviews the use of chemicals to prevent and treat bacterial diseases in aquaculture, and provides a detailed summary of the current state of knowledge on the development of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents in fish and shellfish. The topics covered include mechanisms of resistance, resistance of bacterial fish pathogens, resistance to antibacterial agents associated with use in aquaculture, and factors causing selection of resistant variants. Emphasis is placed on avoiding and solving problems related to bacterial resistance in aquaculture, and recommendations on antibiotic usage in aquaculture are made.
Conference paperH Supriyadi & A Rukyani - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture systems in Indonesia have developed toward intensive culture. As a result of intensification of fish culture, increased outbreaks of disease have occurred. Various chemotherapeutic agents like antibiotics and other chemicals have been widely used for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in fish and shrimp farms. Antibiotics such as oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, neomycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, prefuran and enrofloxacin are used in the treatment of bacterial diseases. Other chemicals such as malachite green oxalate, potassium permanganate, formalin, methylene blue, chlorine and teaseed have been used for the treatment of various diseases. Organic fertilizers, such as chicken manure, and inorganic fertilizers like urea and trisodium phosphate are often applied by shrimp farmers to improve primary productivity in ponds. Bacterial products with trade names like “Multi bacter,” “Enviro star” and “Super NB” have recently been used by shrimp farmers to decompose organic matter resulting from excessive feeding. Feed additives such as vitamin C, “Protec Plus,” and “Super Embak” are used for disease prevention.