Antibiotic resistance of bacteria from shrimp ponds
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The incidence of antibiotic resistance was compared in bacteria isolated from pond water, pond sediment, water and sediment from the receiving environment (area where water from pond drains, which is 0 and 50 m away from the exit gate, in this study) and cultured shrimp from ponds that have not used any antimicrobials, ponds that have previously used antimicrobials and ponds that are currently using oxolinic acid. Most of the bacteria isolated from all sample and pond type were Vibrios. Among the Vibrios, V. harveyi were most commonly isolated. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) to at least two antimicrobials was highest in ponds currently using oxolinic acid (24% of bacteria isolated from such ponds), followed by those that have previously used antimicrobials (19%) and the least was those from ponds that have not used any antimicrobials (17%). The lowest incidence of antibiotic resistance was observed in ponds that have not used any antimicrobials (41% of the isolates from such ponds). Among the individual antibiotics, incidence of resistance to oxytetracycline was highest (4.3% of the total number of isolates) followed by furazolidone (1.6%), oxolinic acid (1%) and chloramphenicol (0.66%). Resistance to individual chemotherapeutants did not reflect the pattern of antimicrobial use with ponds that have previously used antimicrobials showing the highest incidence of resistance to one antimicrobial (12% of total isolates from such ponds). Resistance to both oxolinic acid and furazolidone (15% of total number of isolates) was highest compared to other antimicrobial resistance profiles (1–12%). Multiple antimicrobial resistance and intermediate reaction to at least one antimicrobial are associated with antimicrobial use.
CitationTendencia, E. A., & de la Peña, L. D. (2001). Antibiotic resistance of bacteria from shrimp ponds.
The authors wish to thank the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center for funding the study under study code FH 02 C97T.
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Conference paperH Sako - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterLosses of cultured marine and freshwater fishes due to diseases averaged about 20,000 tons each year or 6% of the aquaculture production in Japan in 1980-1991. During this last decade, bacterial diseases have been responsible for most of the losses. Three trends are evident from epidemiological data. First, diseases caused by bacteria with multiple drug resistance are prevalent, and these are difficult to overcome by chemotherapy. Second, parasitic diseases and viral diseases that are practically impossible to cure are increasing. Third, some diseases seem to originate in juveniles (seed) imported from other countries. Further research should focus on: (1) improving dietary and environmental conditions, (2) giving the host animals resistance against disease through methods such as vaccination, and (3) developing diagnostic and disinfection procedures for epidemics. Active exchange of information is necessary to prevent, or alleviate the effects of, the spread of diseases through international export and import of juveniles.
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Conference paperK Tonguthai - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterIn Thailand, many chemicals are used to treat diseases of cultured aquatic animals and to improve water quality in culture facilities. Along with the intensification of aquaculture practices that has occurred in recent years in Thailand, chemical use has also increased, particularly in marine shrimp culture. This paper summarizes information on the types of chemotherapeutants commonly used in Thailand, their sources and costs, the treatment regimes used, the adverse impacts that have resulted and the hazards posed. Also included is information on national regulations, a summary of on-going research, and recommendations to aquaculturists, producers and suppliers of chemicals, government agencies and scientists. It is concluded that although chemicals and drugs will continue to play an important role in the development of Thai aquaculture, they must be used with caution to avoid adverse effects such as environmental damage and the development of resistant strains of pathogens. To minimize chemical usage, additional emphasis needs to be placed on developing good management practices for aquaculture systems.