Choosing tropical portunid species for culture, domestication and stock enhancement in the Indo-Pacific
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MetadataShow full item record
CitationWilliams, M. J., & Primavera, J. H. (2001). Choosing tropical portunid species for culture, domestication and stock enhancement in the Indo-Pacific.
PublisherAsian Fisheries Society
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Conference paperDD Baliao - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research CentreIn culturing milkfish (Chanos chanos ) to marketable size, the fry (total length = 12-15 mm) are usually reared first in nursery ponds or pens (hapa nets) until they become fingerlings (total length = 2 cm or more). The fingerlings are then transferred to the grow-out ponds or pens where they are reared to marketable size. In some countries like the Philippines, fingerling production has become an industry by itself. This paper reviews the state of the art and constraints to and suggests future research directions for milkfish fingerling production in nursery ponds and pens.
Microsatellite and mitochondrial haplotype diversity reveals population differentiation in the tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in the Indo-Pacific region EM You, TS Chiu, KF Liu, A Tassanakajon, S Klinbunga, K Triwitayakorn, LD de la Peña, Y Li & HT Yu -
Animal Genetics, 2008 - International Society for Animal GeneticsThe black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is an ecologically and economically important penaeid species and is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region. Here we investigated the genetic diversity of P. monodon (n = 355) from eight geographical regions by genotyping at 10 microsatellite loci. The average observed heterozygosity at various loci ranged from 0.638 to 0.743, indicating a high level of genetic variability in this region. Significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium caused by heterozygote deficiency were recorded for most loci and populations. Pairwise FST and RST values revealed genetic differentiation among the populations. Evidence from the assignment test showed that the populations in the West Indian Ocean were unique, whereas other populations examined were partially admixed. In addition, the non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated the presence of three geographic groups in the Indo-Pacific region, i.e. the African populations, a population from western Thailand and the remaining populations as a whole. We also sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial control region (mtCR) in these shrimp stocks to determine whether the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes show a similar pattern of genetic differentiation. A total of 262 haplotypes were identified, and nucleotide divergence among haplotypes ranged from 0.2% to 16.3%. Haplotype diversity was high in all populations, with a range from 0.969 to 1. Phylogenetic analysis using the mtCR data revealed that the West Indian Ocean populations were genetically differentiated from the West Pacific populations, consistent with the microsatellite data. These results should have implications for aquaculture management and conservation of aquatic diversity.
Conference paperEM Leaño - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTransboundary aquatic animal diseases are among the major concerns for establishing biosecurity measures and strengthening of aquatic animal health (AAH) management capacity (including emergency preparedness) in the region. In aquaculture, biosecurity and AAH management entails protection of fish or shellfish from infectious agents (viral, bacterial, fungal or parasitic) as well as prevention of disease spread from one area to another. Several transboundary aquatic animal diseases have swept the region over the past 25 years causing massive economic and social losses. These include spread and outbreaks of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in freshwater fish, viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in marine fish, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in marine and freshwater fish, and several viral diseases in shrimps (e.g. white spot disease [WSD], infectious haematopoietic necrosis [IHHN]). The spread of these transboundary diseases clearly demonstrates the vulnerability of the aquaculture industry to disease emergence where impacts have been aggravated by the lack of effective preparedness and response when diseases emerge. Recently, outbreaks of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), popularly known as early mortality syndrome (EMS), among cultured shrimps were reported in China and Viet Nam (2010), Malaysia (2011), Thailand (2012), Mexico (2013) and the Philippines (2014). There have been reports of its spread in South American countries but limited report is available in this regard. This disease caused significant losses in the production of Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei in the affected countries. NACA s regional response to this disease during its initial outbreak in Viet Nam, Thailand and Malaysia signified that improved control on transboundary diseases and emergency preparedness are still needed in the region. In collaboration with international organizations (OIE, FAO), NACA has implemented awareness programs, efficient information dissemination, and emergency regional expert consultation to address this disease problem. OIE and FAO also deployed experts to assess the disease and identify the pathogen involved. All of these efforts, together with subsequent studies on prevention and disease management, have paved the way in preventing further spread of this disease to other shrimp-producing countries so far. However, the risk is still very high that this disease will spread, as transboundary movement of live shrimps within and outside the region is inevitable. In addition, other emerging diseases are now affecting production of major cultured shrimps in the region. These include hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) with confirmed reports from China, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia (unconfirmed reports from India), and viral covert mortality disease (VCMD) which was reported to be affecting cultured shrimps in China. By and large, outbreaks of damaging aquatic animal diseases are likely to continue and the potential consequences are likely to increase with the expansion (intensification) of aquaculture systems and introduction of new species for culture. Consequently, the risks associated with emerging and transboundary diseases are shared - shared water bodies and epidemiological links through trade (especially live movement) - thus, a collaborative approach in dealing with these diseases is therefore warranted and necessary.