Choosing tropical portunid species for culture, domestication and stock enhancement in the Indo-Pacific
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CitationWilliams, M. J., & Primavera, J. H. (2001). Choosing tropical portunid species for culture, domestication and stock enhancement in the Indo-Pacific.
PublisherAsian Fisheries Society
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Conference paperEM Leaño - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTransboundary aquatic animal diseases are among the major concerns for establishing biosecurity measures and strengthening of aquatic animal health (AAH) management capacity (including emergency preparedness) in the region. In aquaculture, biosecurity and AAH management entails protection of fish or shellfish from infectious agents (viral, bacterial, fungal or parasitic) as well as prevention of disease spread from one area to another. Several transboundary aquatic animal diseases have swept the region over the past 25 years causing massive economic and social losses. These include spread and outbreaks of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in freshwater fish, viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in marine fish, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in marine and freshwater fish, and several viral diseases in shrimps (e.g. white spot disease [WSD], infectious haematopoietic necrosis [IHHN]). The spread of these transboundary diseases clearly demonstrates the vulnerability of the aquaculture industry to disease emergence where impacts have been aggravated by the lack of effective preparedness and response when diseases emerge. Recently, outbreaks of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), popularly known as early mortality syndrome (EMS), among cultured shrimps were reported in China and Viet Nam (2010), Malaysia (2011), Thailand (2012), Mexico (2013) and the Philippines (2014). There have been reports of its spread in South American countries but limited report is available in this regard. This disease caused significant losses in the production of Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei in the affected countries. NACA s regional response to this disease during its initial outbreak in Viet Nam, Thailand and Malaysia signified that improved control on transboundary diseases and emergency preparedness are still needed in the region. In collaboration with international organizations (OIE, FAO), NACA has implemented awareness programs, efficient information dissemination, and emergency regional expert consultation to address this disease problem. OIE and FAO also deployed experts to assess the disease and identify the pathogen involved. All of these efforts, together with subsequent studies on prevention and disease management, have paved the way in preventing further spread of this disease to other shrimp-producing countries so far. However, the risk is still very high that this disease will spread, as transboundary movement of live shrimps within and outside the region is inevitable. In addition, other emerging diseases are now affecting production of major cultured shrimps in the region. These include hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) with confirmed reports from China, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia (unconfirmed reports from India), and viral covert mortality disease (VCMD) which was reported to be affecting cultured shrimps in China. By and large, outbreaks of damaging aquatic animal diseases are likely to continue and the potential consequences are likely to increase with the expansion (intensification) of aquaculture systems and introduction of new species for culture. Consequently, the risks associated with emerging and transboundary diseases are shared - shared water bodies and epidemiological links through trade (especially live movement) - thus, a collaborative approach in dealing with these diseases is therefore warranted and necessary.
Book chapterRF Agbayani, ET Belleza & EC Agbayani - In Aquaculture economics in developing countries: regional assessments and an annotated bibliography, 1997 - Rome: FAOA broad overview is given of research and information on aquaculture economics in Asia and the Pacific. Following a description of the general state of aquaculture in the region, an examination is made of the available research and information on the various aquaculture systems: inland/freshwater aquaculture; brackishwater /coastal aquaculture; and, marine aquaculture/sea farming. Studies on post-harvest handling, processing, transportation and marketing, and market analysis and development are discussed. Environmental issues and concerns, social equity and women's issues, community-based coastal resources management, technology transfer and macro-economic policies and institutional structures are also analysed. Aquaculture economics research is also assessed, highlighting thrusts, priorities, constraints and needs.
Cage culture of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) at different stocking densities in a shallow eutrophic lake Postlarvae of Litopenaeus vannamei were acclimated and stocked in lake-based cages at the following stocking densities: 10, 20, 30 and 40 shrimp m−2. Another set of shrimp was stocked in concrete tanks as reference samples at 30 shrimp m−2. Significant differences were observed among stocking densities throughout the 95-day culture. The final weight at harvest decreased with increasing stocking density: mean weights of 23.3, 15.8, 13.0, 10.9 and 14.6 g for the 10, 20, 30, 40 shrimp m−2 and reference tanks were observed respectively. There were no significant differences in survival throughout the culture period, ranging between 69% and 77%. Daily growth rates (range: 0.11–0.24 g day−1) and specific growth rates (range: 3.54–4.34%) also differed significantly among stocking densities, both increasing with decreasing stocking density. The feed conversion ratio in the cages did not differ among the stocking densities, ranging from 1.53 to 1.65. The relationship between stocking density and mean individual weight at harvest followed the equation y=81.06x−0.54 (R2=0.938) and that of stocking density and production (in g m−2) is y=58.01x−0.46 (R2=0.834).