Nursery rearing of the Asian catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther), at different stocking densities in cages suspended in tanks and ponds
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Growth and survival of hatchery-bred Asian catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther), fry reared at different stocking densities in net cages suspended in tanks and ponds were measured. The stocking densities used were 285, 571 and 1143 fry m−3 in tanks and 114, 228 and 457 fry m−3 in ponds. Fish were fed a formulated diet throughout the 28-day rearing period. Generally, fish reared in cages in ponds grew faster, with a specific growth rate (SGR) range of 10.3–14.6% day−1, than those in cages suspended in tanks (SGR range 9–11.3% day−1). This could be attributed to the presence of natural zooplankton (copepods and cladocerans) in the pond throughout the culture period, which served as additional food sources for catfish juveniles. In both scenarios, the fish reared at lower densities had significantly higher SGR than fish reared at higher densities. In the pond, the SGR of fish held at 228 and 457 m−3 were similar to each other but were significantly lower than those of fish held at 114 m−3. The zooplankton in ponds consisted mostly of copepods and cladocerans, in contrast to tanks, in which rotifers were more predominant. Per cent survival ranged from 85% to 89% in tanks and from 78% to 87% in ponds and did not differ significantly among stocking densities and between rearing systems. In conclusion, catfish nursery in cages suspended in tanks and ponds is density dependent. Catfish fry reared at 285 m−3 in tanks and at 114 m−3 in ponds had significantly faster growth rates than fish reared at higher densities. However, the desired fingerling size of 3–4 cm total length for stocking in grow-out culture can still be attained at stocking densities of 457 m−3 in nursery pond and 571 m−3 in tanks.
CitationBombeo, R. F., Fermin, A. C., & Tan-Fermin, J. D. (2002). Nursery rearing of the Asian catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther), at different stocking densities in cages suspended in tanks and ponds.
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Conference paperZ Jangkaru & R Djajadiredja - In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Pen Cage Culture of Fish, 11-22 February 1979, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1979 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; International Development Research CentreThe main objective of this experiment was to determine the optimal density or stocking rate for the optimal total production and growth rate of common carp, Cyprinus carpio . A raft of 10 x 10 m made of steel bars with drums as floaters was divided into nine plots. A cage of polyethylene 3 x 3 x 2 m, 1 inch mesh size was hung in every plot. About three fourths of the cage was under water. Three stages of stocking rate of common carp of about 130 g individual weight were used: 2 kg/m2, 4 kg/m2 and 6 kg/m2. The experimental Latin Square design was used. Artificial fish food (pellet) containing about 32 percent crude protein was given five times a day. Fish were fed to satiation. Morphometrical and limnological data were measured every 14 days. Individual growth and actual rations were calculated daily. As a result of this experiment, common carp culture is floating net cages with a stocking rate of 6 kg/m2 is recommended.
Conference paperK Fukusho - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture production in Japan in 1993 was 1,351,000 tons, 15.6% of the total fisheries production. About 93.6% came from mariculture and 6.4% from freshwater aquaculture. The per cent contribution of aquaculture to total production has increased in recent years but partly because marine fisheries,especially of sardine and pollack, have decreased. Aquaculture has reached a plateau, and decreased slightly between 1992 and 1993. Diverse marine and freshwater species are cultured in Japan — various fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, seaweeds, sea squirt, sea urchin, and others. Research and development in mariculture focus on finding substitutes for animal protein in feeds, improvement of fish quality, protection of the culture environment, use of offshore floating culture systems, and protection from diseases. Research in freshwater aquaculture has expanded to include recreational fishing, the propagation and preservation of endangered species, and the construction of fish ladders for salmonids and other migratory species.
Growth and yield of the grouper Epinephelus coioides fed 'trash fish' at different rates and frequencies in floating net cages GV Galzote & EC Abrera - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of AgricultureThe effects of various feeding rates and frequencies on the growth and survival of orangespotted grouper Epinephelus coides were determined in floating net cages in Tiniguiban Cove, Puerto Princesa, Palawan. Juveniles (average weight 60 g) were stocked in 2 m x 2 m x 1.5 m cages at a density of 10/m3. The experiment tested six treatments: 10% of body weight (BW) daily; 5% BW daily; ad libitum daily; 10% BW every other day; 5% BW every other day; and ad libitum every other day. After five months, the fish fed at 10% daily had 100% survival and the highest weight gain (520 g), growth rate (3.5 g/d), net production (31.44 kg), and gross income (P5,463). However, returns were negative in all treatments because of either too high feed consumption and poor conversion or low net production.