Milkfish (Chanos chanos) growth hormone cDNA cloning and mRNA expression in embryos and early larval stages.
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In an attempt to understand growth regulation in milkfish, the milkfish growth hormone (GH) and its cDNA were characterized and the expression of GH mRNA in embryos and larvae was examined by RT-PCR. The milkfish GH was purified from an alkaline extract of the pituitary by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and detected as an immuno-positive protein with anti-salmon GH serum. The complete sequence of milkfish pre-GH was determined by cDNA cloning and nucleotide sequencing. On the basis of the N-terminal amino acid analysis of the native protein, the pre-GH was found to consist of a signal peptide of 22 amino acids and a mature protein of 188 amino acids. Milkfish GH shows higher amino acid sequence identity with GHs of carps (91–94%) and salmonids (70%) than with GHs of more advanced teleosts (<60%) in good accordance with its taxonomic position in teleosts. It has five half Cys residues, four of which are at positions homologous with those of other known GHs and the extra Cys with those of carp GHs. The molecular weight of milkfish GH was estimated to be 22 kDa, which is comparable to the theoretical value. This suggests that milkfish GH is a simple protein, although it has two potential N-glycosylation sites. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that GH mRNA expression was relatively weak in embryos and newly hatched larvae but was already strong in 2-day old and older larvae.
Citationde Jesus, E. G. T., Ayson, F. G., Amemiya, Y., Moriyama, S., Hyodo, S., Hirano, T., & Kawauchi, H. (2002). Milkfish (Chanos chanos) growth hormone cDNA cloning and mRNA expression in embryos and early larval stages.
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Cloning of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) growth hormone cDNA and mRNA expression during early development LP Samentar, FG Ayson, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & MJ Formacion -
Philippine Journal of Natural Sciences, 2013 - University of the Philippines VisayasGrowth hormone regulates growth and development in vertebrates. As a first step to understand the role of growth hormone in the regulation of growth and development of the mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus, the red snapper growth hormone (sGH) cDNA was cloned using reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The expression of sGH mRNA in embryos and larvae was examined also by RT-PCR. Excluding the poly-A tail, the full-length red snapper GH cDNA is 945 base pairs (bp) long. It contains untranslated regions of 99 bp and 234 bp in the 5’ and 3’ ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 612 bp coding for a signal peptide of 17 amino acids and a mature hormone of 187 amino acid residues. Red snapper GH contains 4 cysteine residues and the typical polyadenylation site 16 bp upstream of the poly-A tail. Based on the amino acid sequence of the mature hormone, sGH shows higher sequence identity (>75%) to GHs of perciforms like grouper, seabass, tilapia and rabbitfish than to GHs of salmonids and carps. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that expression of sGH mRNA commenced two days after hatching.
mRNA expression patterns for GH, PRL, SL, IGF-I and IGF-II during altered feeding status in rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus. Feeding time is a major synchronizer of many physiological rhythms in many organisms. Alteration in the nutritional status, specifically fasting, also affects the secretion rhythms of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). In this study, we investigated whether the expression patterns for the mRNAs of GH, prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) in the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the liver of juvenile rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) follow a rhythm according to feeding time and whether these hormone rhythms changes with starvation. Hormone mRNA levels were determined by real time PCR. The daily expression pattern for the mRNAs of GH, PRL and SL was not altered whether food was given in the morning (10:00 h) or in the afternoon (15:00 h). The daily GH mRNA expression pattern, however, was affected when food was not available for 3 days. In contrast, the daily expression pattern for IGF-I mRNA reaches its peak at roughly 5–6 h after feeding. This pattern, however, was not observed with IGF-II mRNA. During 15-day starvation, GH mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly higher than the control fish starting on the 9th day of starvation until day 15. The levels returned to normal after re-feeding. In contrast to GH, PRL mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly lower than the control group starting on the 6th day of starvation until 3 days after re-feeding. SL mRNA levels were not significantly different between the control and starved group at anytime during the experiment. Both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels in starved group were significantly higher than the control fish on the 3rd and 6th day of starvation. mRNA levels of both IGF-I and II in the starved fish decreased starting on the 9th day of starvation. While IGF-I mRNA levels in the starved group continued to decrease as starvation progressed, IGF-II mRNA levels were not significantly different from the control during the rest of the starvation period. The results indicate that aside from GH and IGF-I, PRL and IGF-II are likewise involved in starvation in rabbitfish.
Isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) growth hormone FG Ayson, EGT de Jesus, Y Amemiya, S Moriyama, T Hirano & H Kawauchi -
General and Comparative Endocrinology, 2000 - ElsevierWe report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the molecular weight of rabbitfish GH is about 19 kDa as estimated by SDS–PAGE. The purified hormone was potent in promoting growth in rabbitfish fry. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of the hormone significantly accelerated growth. This was evident 3 weeks after the start of the treatment, and its effect was still significant 2 weeks after the treatment was terminated. Rabbitfish GH cDNA was cloned to determine its nucleotide sequence. Excluding the poly (A) tail, rabbitfish GH cDNA is 860 base pairs (bp) long. It contained untranslated regions of 94 and 175 bp in the 5′ and 3′ ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 178 amino acid residues. Rabbitfish GH has 4 cysteine residues. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish GH shows high identity (71–74%) with GHs of other perciforms, such as tuna, sea bass, yellow tail, bonito, and tilapia, and less (47–49%) identity with salmonid and carp GHs.