Enhancement of innate immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) associated with dietary intake of carotenoids from natural products
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The effects of orally administered carotenoids from natural sources on the non-specific defense mechanisms of rainbow trout were evaluated in a nine-week feeding trial. Fish were fed four diets containing either β-carotene or astaxanthin at 100 and 200 mg kg−1 from the marine algae Dunaliella salina and red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, respectively, and a control diet containing no supplemented carotenoids. Specific growth rate and feed:gain ratio were not affected by dietary carotenoid supplementation. Among the humoral factors, serum alternative complement activity increased significantly in all carotenoid supplemented groups when compared to the control. On the other hand, serum lysozyme activity increased in the Dunaliella> group but not in the Phaffia group, whereas plasma total immunoglobulin levels were not altered by the feeding treatments. As for the cellular responses, the superoxide anion production from the head kidney remained unchanged while the phagocytic rate and index in all supplemented groups were significantly higher than those of the control. These findings demonstrate that dietary carotenoids from both D. salina and P. rhodozyma can modulate some of the innate defense mechanisms in rainbow trout.
Amar, E. C., Kiron, V., Satoh, S., & Watanabe, T. (2004). Enhancement of innate immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) associated with dietary intake of carotenoids from natural products.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 16(4), 527-537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2003.09.004
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