Immune responses of Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer Bloch, against an inactivated betanodavirus vaccine
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Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), exhibited strong immune responses against a single injection of the formalin-inactivated red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), a betanodavirus originally isolated in Japan. Fish produced neutralizing antibodies at high titre levels from days 10 (mean titre 1:480) to 116 (1:1280), with the highest titre at day 60 post-vaccination (1:4480). When fish were challenged with the homologous RGNNV at day 54 post-vaccination, there were no mortalities in both the vaccinated and unvaccinated control fish. However, a rapid clearance of the virus was observed in the brains and kidneys of vaccinated fish, followed by a significant increase in neutralizing-antibody titres. Furthermore, the vaccine-induced antibodies potently neutralized Philippine betanodavirus isolates (RGNNV) in a cross-neutralization assay. The present results indicate the potential of the formalin-inactivated RGNNV vaccine against viral nervous necrosis (VNN) of Asian seabass.
Pakingking, R. V., Jr., Seron, R., de la Peña, L. D., Mori, K., Yamashita, H., & Nakai, T. (2009). Immune responses of Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer Bloch, against an inactivated betanodavirus vaccine.
Journal of Fish Diseases, 32(5), 457-463. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2009.01040.x
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