Domestication of the mud crab Scylla serrata
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The significant decrease in wild mud crab population highlights the need to manage the resources and domesticate crabs. This paper presents the initial results of the domestication of mud crab Scylla serrata aimed at producing good-quality captive broodstock. The analysis of the genetic structure of the base population was done as a prerequisite for domestication. Adult S. serrata from the northern to southern parts of the Philippines (Cagayan, Camarines, Samar, and Surigao) were obtained for genetic diversity analysis and domestication. Analysis of molecular variance showed that differences in the genetic variability between the four populations were not significant. Moreover, no significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium was observed in each sample population and even in pooled populations. Body weight was positively correlated with the carapace width. Second spawning occurred 41–46 days after the first spawning and 34 days from second to third spawning. However, there was a decrease in the number of zoea in repeat spawnings. Twenty-four first-generation (F1) families were produced from the four sites. The duration from spawning of the base population (P0) to attainment of broodstock size F1 was 10–14 months. Four second-generation (F2) families were produced after 11–12 months. Up to the F2, crabs tested negative for six viruses: white spot syndrome virus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, gill-associated virus, yellow head virus, Taura syndrome virus, and infectious myonecrosis virus. The reproductive performance of P0 was comparable to the succeeding generations. Several families were obtained from one population in a year. However, due to the cannibalistic behavior of crabs, more space is required for the nursery and grow-out phase. The domestication of S. serrata is the first study done on any mud crab species in the Indo-west Pacific region. The initial results would serve as guide to understand and eliminate the barriers to mud crab domestication. The breeding technology developed from this study will support the production of good-quality seedstock for farming.
CitationQuinitio, E. T., de la Cruz, J. J., Eguia, M. R. R., Parado-Estepa, F. D., Pates Jr., G. S., & Lavilla-Pitogo, C. R. (2011). Domestication of the mud crab Scylla serrata.
Aquaculture; Bottom culture; Brood stocks; Crustacean culture; Domestication; Population genetics; Symptoms; Viral diseases; Viruses; Decapoda; Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus; Scylla serrata; Taura syndrome virus; White spot syndrome virus; Yellow head virus; Gill-associated virus; Philippines
This study was partly supported by the Japanese Trust Fund—Government of Japan under the ASEAN-SEAFDEC FCG Mechanism Program. The technical support of the crustacean hatchery (TMS) and grow-out (DBS) staff is acknowledged.
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Transboundary shrimp viral diseases with emphasis on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and taura syndrome virus (TSV) LD de la Peña - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterCrustaceans, specifically the cultured penaeid shrimp, are adversely affected by a number of diseases. Crustacean diseases that have significant social or economic impact on culture are mostly infectious in nature and many of them have no therapeutic remedies or treatments. There are currently 8 diseases of crustaceans listed by the OIE, seven of which are viral diseases of penaeid shrimp. This summary discusses two of the most important viral diseases in penaeid shrimp, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV).
Conference paperCAM Cruz, PC dela Cruz, PCD Alcala, FGM Tagle, ES Santos, MD Santos & MBB Maningas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterLaem-Singh Virus (LSNV), a single-stranded RNA virus that causes growth retardation in Penaeus monodon, is also known as Monodon Slow-Growth Syndrome (MSGS) virus. Black Tiger shrimps afflicted with this virus exhibit unusual dark color, a weight gain of less than 0.1 g in 1 to 2 weeks, unusual yellow markings, bamboo-shaped abdominal markings and brittle antennae. It was first detected in Thailand and the virus quickly spread to neighboring Asian countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. The shrimp economy of countries where infections have occurred experienced losses in the export of live shrimps and broodstocks. An earlier study in 2009 reported that LSNV was not present in the Philippines. However, since no follow-up researches were done in the succeeding years, this study was conducted to detect the presence of virus in selected sites of Luzon. Results based on biased sampling method and RT-PCR data indicated that LSNV is indeed present in the country. This is further supported by DNA sequence data, showing 100% identity with LSNV India isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Philippine isolate clustered closely with other LSNV isolates. The outcome of this study might have implications in the current practices in the Philippine shrimp aquaculture industry.
Conference paperDV Lightner - In Y Inui & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Disease Control in Fish and Shrimp Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques: Proceedings … Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques, 4-6 December 2001, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe most important diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp, in terms of economic impact, in Asia, the Indo-Pacific, and the Americas, have infectious etiologies. Although diseases with bacterial, fungal, and parasitic etiologies are also important, certain virus-caused diseases stand out as the most significant. The pandemics due to the penaeid viruses WSSV, TSV, YHV, and IHHNV have collectively cost the penaeid shrimp industry billions of dollars in lost crops, jobs, and export revenue. Although not as sudden nor as catastrophic in their onset and course, certain bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases of shrimp have also been responsible for very significant production losses, and the relative importance of many of these diseases should not be discounted. The social and economic impacts of the pandemics caused by WSSV and TSV have been especially profound in the Americas, and in the wake of these viral pandemics the shrimp culture industry has sought ways to restore the industry’s levels of production to the “pre-virus” years. Central to improving disease) prevention and management strategies is the incorporation of the concepts of biosecurity into shrimp farm design and operational strategies. Disease management in shrimp aquaculture is an important component to biosecurity of farms and to the sustainability of individual farms, shrimp farming countries, or entire geographic regions. The first step in disease management requires the availability of accurate and reliable diagnostic methods and knowledge of the biology of the diseases of concern. The recognition of the need for biosecurity and disease management in the Americas is reflected in the recent proliferation of shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories in the Americas. Where there were only a handful of shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories a decade ago, there are 40 or more such laboratories serving the industry today. Diagnostic methods may be applied to determining the cause of disease(s) that are adversely affecting the culture performance or survival of farmed shrimp stocks or they may be used for surveillance purposes to screen for the presence of specific pathogens in otherwise healthy shrimp for the purpose of disease control. As diagnostic methods have improved and become more widely available, the interest in culturing specific pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp stocks in biosecure facilities has increased markedly in many regions in the Americas. The methods being used in shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories in the Americas were recently surveyed. Of the 40 laboratories contacted, 27 responded to the survey. Approximately 75% of the labs responding to the survey provide diagnostic services using both molecular (PCR, RT-PCR and gene probes) and classical (routine histology and microbiology) methods, while nearly all (93%) of the diagnostic labs offer diagnostic testing and screening services based on molecular methods (i.e. assays with gene probes and PCR/RT-PCR).