White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) risk factors associated with shrimp farming practices in polyculture and monoculture farms in the Philippines
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White spot sydrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important viral disease of shrimp. Several studies to control the disease have been done. Tank experiments identified WSSV risk factors related to the physico chemical properties of the water. A few studies reported pond level WSSV risk factors. This study identifies the risk factors associated with essentially two different farming systems: polyculture and semi-intensive monoculture of Penaeus monodon. Data were gathered from a total of 174 shrimp farmers in eight provinces of the Philippines using a structured questionnaire. Forty-seven variables related to pond history and site description, period of culture, pond preparation techniques, water management, culture methods, feed and other inputs, and biosecurity measures were investigated. In the analysis for combined monoculture and polyculture farms, feeding live molluscs was identified as important WSSV risk factors. In addition to feeding live molluscs, sharing of water source with other farms, having the same receiving and water source, larger pond size, and higher stocking density were identified as important WSSV risk factors in monoculture farms. Climate, i.e. stocking during the cold months and sludge removal and its deposition on the dikes were identified as WSSV risk factors in polyculture farms. Protective factors, listed in decreasing significance, were feeding with planktons and high mangrove to pond area ratio, both observed in the dataset with both monoculture and polyculture farms, while only the latter was observed in the dataset for monoculture farms only. No protective factor was observed in the dataset for polyculture farms. This study confirmed the negative effect of sharing water source with other farms and identified several new factors influencing WSSV infection such as feeding live molluscs increases the risk, while feeding with planktons and high mangrove to pond area ratio reduce the risk.
CitationTendencia, E. A., Bosma, R. H., & Verreth, J. A. J. (2011). White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) risk factors associated with shrimp farming practices in polyculture and monoculture farms in the Philippines.
The authors wish to acknowledge the funding support of the Government of Japan under the trust fund granted to SEAFDEC AQD (study code: GoJ TFD FH0206) and RESCOPAR, Wageningen University, the Netherlands. Our gratitude also goes to those who supported and assisted in the conduct of the survey−Dr. John Albaladejo and staff: Ruel, Pepe, and Wetet; Mr. Andres Bojos and staff: Carol, Tetet, Joy, Jonah, Renren and Nong Nards; Dr. Gigi Carillo and staff: Ron, Mel, Johnel, Elsie, Bart, and Guada; Bong and Roselyn; Mr. Rey Cawaling, and Ms. Sarah Fedelicio; and to the shrimp farmers of Aklan, Antique, Bohol, Bulacan, Cebu, Leyte, Negros and Northern Samar who willingly and unselfishly shared their experiences.
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Development of farming schemes following disease occurrences in monodon shrimp farming using intensive method in three Southeast Asian countries T Matsuura, LD de la Peña, CP Ean, R Siow & AH Alias - In T Matsuura (Ed.), Comparative Analysis of Aquaculture Management in Brackish Mangrove Areas in Three Southeast Asian Countries, 2007 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
Series: JIRCAS Working Report; No. 56All three countries experienced major progress in intensive shrimp farming at different ties. Intensive farming of monodon shrimp (Penaeus monodon, an indigenous species) was first launched by the Philippines, followed by Thailand, then by Peninsular Malaysia. The survey was conducted from 2000-2005. The disease-causing bacterial that seiously damaged monodon culture were luminous bacteria in the Philippines and white spot virus in Thailand and Malaysia. Production decreased because of these diseases in the mid-1990s in the Philippines and after 2000 in Thailand and Malaysia. In 1998, the Green Water System (hereinafter referred to as GWS) was developed, and a proportion of culture ponds introduced it and resumed monodon culture using the intensive method. In Thailand, the vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei, an exotic species from South America) has now replaced monodon previously raised using the extensive method. In Malaysia, monodon is cultured using only the intensive method, and some culture pond enterprises started to culture vannamei instead of monodon in 2004. In the Philippines, companies engaging in monodon culture have many ponds and lower stocking density because they culture large-size shrimp, but are exposed to high running costs such as fuels and probiotics. On the other hand, in Thailand, individuals engaging in monodon culture have few ponds and higher stocking density since they culture small-scale shrimp. Labor costs are low because most of the work is done by family member.
Conference paperCR De la Cruz - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentIntegrated aquaculture-agriculture systems are more common in fresh water than in brackish water. Nevertheless, southeast Asian countries already have considerable research and experience in brackishwater integrated farming systems. In the Philippines, the effects of animal wastes on water quality and production of fish have been studied: chicken wastes on the mixed culture of milkfish Chanos chanos, tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and shrimp Penaeus indicus; chicken and cattle manures on P. monodon and Artemia; and swine wastes on tilapia O. mossambicus. In Indonesia, about 60 hectares of fish farms have crops (pumpkin, spinach, cassava, maize, and chili) or livestock (cattle, goat, sheep, chicken, and duck) grown on the dikes of milkfish ponds. In Vietnam, culture of the giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Scylla serrata and marine shrimps has been integrated with coastal rice farming. Aquaculture-silviculture is a flourishing venture in Vietnam and Indonesia and gaining ground with experimental sites in Thailand and the Philippines. The seaweed Gracilaria has been cultured with fishes and shrimps in Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, and the Philippines. The production of Artemia cysts and biomass has been integrated with salt-making and fish or shrimp farming in the Philippines and Thailand. Production inputs and outputs from these integrated farming systems vary widely and socioeconomic information is nil. It is imperative to conduct follow-up research and evaluation of each system in terms of production and socioeconomics.