Grow-out culture of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus Forsskal, 1775) in ponds
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The mangrove red snapper is among the high-value marine fishes with great potential for export. Snapper is important to coastal fishery and ideal for aquaculture particularly in Southeast Asia. Grow-out culture of snapper are described - pond culture and culture in cages inside the ponds. In the pond culture, the whole area can be maximized and the available natural food can be utilized by snapper. In rearing snapper in cages inside the pond, fish sampling and harvesting are easily done and also in preventing of disease infection and securing of fish stocks during flooding. In both culture methods a good site would have a mangrove buffer space about 20-100 m that lies between the ponds and the source of water like river or sea. Pond soil with a good water retention property is desirable for dike construction. Water supply should be adequate year-round, free from pollutants and run-off flooding. Pond supplies, labor and technology should be available on the selected site which is also accessible to markets with peaceful locale. The pond for growing snapper should be prepared well in order to promote good growth of fish, to minimize pollution, and prevents the proliferation of pathogens. Stocking of healthy and larger uniform size juveniles will mean higher survival, faster growth and shorter culture period. Proper handling of juveniles during harvest, size-grading, counting, packing, transport, acclimation and stocking should be observed and should be done during the cooler part of the day. Recommended juveniles for grow-out is about 20-100 g average body weight (ABW) and stocking densities of 5,000/ha in ponds, and at 5 pcs/m3 or 5,000 pcs/ha when stocked in cages inside the pond. During culture, good water quality is maintained and when necessary the cleaning of net cages, repair of dike leaks and seepages, and aeration are to be considered. Snapper dietary protein is about 48-50%. The following are the factors to consider in the feeding management of snapper: total stock (pcs), survival (%), ABW (g), feed rate (% biomass), feed type, feed size, feeding frequency and time. Economic analysis based on 0.422 ha pond shows that feeds accounted for 60-67% and juveniles contribute 23-25% of the variable cost. The feed conversion ratios, return on investments, payback period and discounted benefit-cost ratios are 2.5 and 2.6; 203 and 43%; 0.46 and 1.76 yr; 1.4 and 1.2 for culture of snapper in pond and culture in cages inside the pond, respectively, are likewise acceptable.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
SeriesAquaculture extension manual no. 53
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Conference paperB Sirikul, S Luanprida, K Chaiyakam & R Sriprasert - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture practised in Thailand is in the form of pond culture and cage culture in freshwater, brackishwater and coastal areas. The main species cultured include freshwater prawns, brackishwater shrimp, cockles, mussels, and various freshwater and marine finfishes. There is good potential for increased production from freshwater, brackishwater and marine aquaculture. However, the 1983 production of 145 000 mt represents only about 6% of Thailand's total fish production and production in this subsector has fluctuated widely. It will be several years before aquaculture production will contribute substantially to total production. Nonetheless, the culture of high value species of shrimp and fish could contribute significantly to export earnings during the next 5 to 10 years. Conducted primarily by government agencies, research and development are along the lines of increasing seed supply, establishing new culture techniques or improving older ones. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) together with some private companies have ventured into the development and testing of artificial diets for the various cultured species using a variety of indigenous feed stuffs. It is estimated that with adequate investments and appropriate support, aquaculture production will increase from 145 000 mt in 1983 to 378 000 mt in 1991, showing an annual increase of about 13% over this period. Major increases would come from bivalve mariculture (131 000 mt), brackishwater ponds (36 000 mt) freshwater ponds (46 000 mt) and brackishwater cage culture (20 000 mt).
Conference paperN Ishida, T Koshiishi, T Tsuzaki, S Yanagi, S Katayama, M Satoh & S Satoh - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterA non-fish meal diet using plant and/or animal protein materials for yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata was developed. Three kinds of non-fish meal diets and a control diet containing 50% fish meal were processed. In the non-fish meal diets, the fish meal was replaced with commercially available plant or animal materials and supplemented with taurine and other ingredients for maintaining palatability. These diets were fed to one year old yellowtail (body weight: 753±96 g) in net cages. No significant differences in growth, daily weight gain, daily feed rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were observed among fish given the diets. Non-fish meal diets were processed in a factory and their biological characteristics were studied such as uptake, stomach evacuation rate, and disease resistance. In addition, the diet palatability of each substitute protein source for fish was examined and ingredients that enhanced palatability of the non-fish meal diets were identified. Non-fish meal diets have the potential to support the growth of one year old yellowtail.
Conference paperMR Catacutan - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterCultured marine aquatic species are predominantly carnivorous. Major species in the region are seabass, grouper, snapper, tiger shrimp, mangrove crab and abalone. These species, except for abalone, require a high level of dietary protein mostly supplied by marine sources such as fish meal. Global production of marine fish and marine shrimps showed a 3-4 fold increase from 1995 to 2010. For the same period, the usage of commercial feed for production of marine fish and shrimps increased while the fish meal portion in the formulation decreased. This is indicative of fish meal being substituted with alternative sources in commercial feed production, and to some extent the substitution of marine oil which particularly improved the FCR for the marine fish production from 2.0 to 1.9 and for marine shrimps from 2.0 to 1.6. Plant products that include cereal grains, legumes and oilseeds have the most potential among the alternative ingredients for use in aquafeed. The use of these resources for high value marine species is limited due to a variety of anti-nutritional substances they contain. Removal of these substances by processing techniques has improved utilization but with added cost. Hence, fish meal is still the primary source of protein for marine carnivores and its substitution with higher amounts of alternative plant proteins may be difficult compared with lower levels of replacements. The Asian region has accounted for the more than 50% of the total global aquaculture production in 2012 with indications of increased utilization of alternative protein sources in commercial feed production. For the major marine species in the region the increasing trend of plant protein usage with the targeted levels of substitution of fish meal with plant protein sources should be sustainable.