Management of feeding aquaculture species
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This chapter teaches the reader to: differentiate the different feeding strategies in pond culture; learn feeding management methods such as stock sampling and record keeping, calculating daily feed ration, choosing appropriate feed size, and methods of applying feeds; understand the impact of feeding management on water quality and environment and on the cultured animal’s growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio; and describe the different feeding schemes used to culture fishes (milkfish, tilapia, rabbitfish, bighead carp, native catfish, sea bass, orange-spotted grouper, and mangrove red snapper; and crustaceans (tiger shrimp and mud crab). Other species for aquaculture stock enhancement (donkey’s ear abalone, seahorses, window-pane oyster) are also discussed.
Alava, V. R. (2002). Management of feeding aquaculture species. In O. M. Millamena, R. M. Coloso, & F. P. Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species (pp. 169-208). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
- Feeding strategies in pond culture
- Production of natural aquatic food
- Feeding a supplementary diet
- Feeding a complete diet
- Feeding management
- Sampling and record keeping
- Feeding ration
- Feed particle size
- Feed application methods
- Feeding, water quality, and the environment
- Feeding, oxygen requirements, and water quality
- Fish farm wastes
- Performance measures
- Feed conversion ratio
- Feeding schemes
- Bighead carp
- Native catfish
- Asian sea bass
- Orange-spotted grouper
- Mangrove red snapper
- Tiger shrimp
- Mud crabs
- Other species for Stock enhancement
- Donkey’s ear abalone
- Window pane oyster
- Guide questions
- Suggested readings
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Feeding; Artificial feeding; Feed preparation; Food organisms; Feed efficiency; Feeding equipment; Water quality; Feeding behaviour; Sampling; Eutrophication; Brood stocks; Fish culture; Crustacean culture; Mollusc culture; Shrimp culture; Pond culture; Cage culture; Aquaculture; Aquaculture techniques; Animal nutrition; Milkfish; Tilapia; Carp; Freshwater catfish; Sea bass; Groupers; Snappers; Prawns and shrimps; Crabs; Abalones; Oysters; Chanos chanos; Oreochromis niloticus; Oreochromis mossambicus; Oreochromis aureus; Siganus guttatus; Aristichthys nobilis; Clarias macrocephalus; Lates calcarifer; Epinephelus coioides; Lutjanus argentimaculatus; Penaeus monodon; Scylla serrata; Scylla tranquebarica; Scylla olivacea; Haliotis asinina; Hippocampus kuda; Hippocampus barbouri; Placuna placenta
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Conference paperL Cheong - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentThe trend of fish production in Singapore is towards increasing contribution from marine and brackishwater aquaculture. Aquaculture production in 1986 represented 6.8% of local fish production. It is envisaged that this sector will provide about 37.5% of production by 1995. Freshwater aquaculture will focus mainly on production of ornamental fish. Production from farming of freshwater food fish is not likely to increase significantly. Commonly farmed marine finfishes are groupers (Epinephelus tauvina), sea bass (Lates calcarifer), and golden snapper (Lutjanus johni). Crustaceans include prawns (Penaeus merguiensis), crabs (Scylla serrata) and mussels (Perna viridis). Of the freshwater finfishes, the most commonly cultured are the grass, silver and bighead carps, red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus hybrid), Lampam jawa (Puntius gonionotus), marble goby (Oxyleotrix marmorata) and the snakehead (Channa sp.). Aquaculture systems use a combination of floating and shorebased techniques. Earthen ponds are utilized for the culture of freshwater carps, floating netcages for marine finfish, ponds and floating netcages for marine crustaceans, and rope culture for mussels. Some research and development studies conducted presently include maturation studies to solve the problem of inconsistent supply of prawn spawners, experiments or use of dry formulated feed to do away with dependency on trash fish as main feed for grow-out marine finfish, and investigations on diseases of prawns under intensive culture. Constraints for large-scale production of finfish seeds lie in the large tank facilities required for producing live feed; for nursery operations, time and manpower required for grading and feeding; for growout systems, disease prevention and control; for prawn production, inconsistent spawner supply; and for mussel production, low consumer demand. The species with the highest potential for fanning in Singapore is the banana prawn, Penaeus merguiensis as its culture can be intensified and high yields can be obtained.
BookET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & JJ dela Cruz-Huervana - 2018 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 34This manual includes the biology of crab (Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica, and S. olivacea), and describes principles and procedures for spawning the mature crabs and rearing the zoea to ‘fly’ size crabs. It focuses on the hatchery rearing of S. serrata as the farming of this species is more economically viable than the two other species. The techniques may be modified depending on the conditions or problems encountered in a specific site.
Conference paperET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa, JJ Huervana & MR Burlas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterWidespread interest in mud crab species is increasing because these are highly prized both in domestic and export markets. Among the three mud crab species commonly found in the Philippines, Scylla serrata, S. olivacea, and S. tranquebarica, S. serrata is preferred by farmers because it is larger and less aggressive than the other species. Likewise, S. serrata is the most widely distributed species in the Indo-west Pacific region. Hatchery-produced seedstock are presently used by some crab farmers in their grow-out operations. In the hatchery phase, feeding mud crab larvae with shrimp formulated diets and natural food was found to reduce the occurrence of molt death syndrome, one of the major problems in seed production. Larvae given 25% formulated diet (FD) + 75% natural food (NF; rotifers and Artemia) and 50% FD + 50% NF showed better performance than those larvae fed 100% FD, 100% NF and 75% FD + 25% NF indicating that usage of natural food, especially the expensive Artemia, can be reduced. Since the early crab instar (C) produced in the hatchery need to be grown further before stocking in grow-out ponds, two phases of nursery culture have been developed. C1-2 are grown to 1.5-2.0 cm carapace width (CW) size in the first phase and further grown to 3.0-4.0 cm CW in the second phase. Nursery rearing is done in net cages installed in ponds for easy retrieval. A combination of mussel or trash fish and formulated diet is used as feed. Domestication of the mud crab S. serrata as a prerequisite to selective breeding has been done at SEAFDEC/AQD. Likewise, defining criteria for the determination of quality of newly hatched zoeae for stocking in the hatchery was initiated. Newly hatched zoeae were subjected to starvation and stress test using formalin. Starvation failed to elicit responses that were significantly different between the good and poor quality larvae hence it is not suitable for larval quality evaluation. Based on three-year data, the formalin stress test gave mean cumulative mortalities of 2.38±0.32, 8.24±0.88, 20±1.58 in good quality larvae, and 43.74±2.39 while 22.93±4.19, 63.68±7.17, 84.29±3.88 and 97.65±1.06 for poor quality larvae at 0 (control), 20, 30 and 40 ppm formalin, respectively. As formalin level increased, cumulative larval mortality also increased regardless of the quality of the larvae. Formalin stress test proved to be a reliable method to determine whether a batch of newly hatched zoeae was of good or poor quality.