Country report: Philippines
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Natural populations of oysters and mussels have long been gathered for food by coastal communities in the Philippines, and bivalve farming began in early 1900. The first farms were no more than a series of bamboo poles inserted in the muddy bottom of Manila Bay in Bacoor Cavite. In May 1934, the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) established a pilot oyster farm in Binakayan, Cavite Province, Luzon, and a lucrative industry soon grew up. By 1950, about 200 ha of private farms existed in Bacoor Bay, but, in the late 1950s, mussels appeared on the farms and threatened the industry. The response of BFAR was to initiate farms for mussels, and the results prompted the establishment of a mussel industry that proved to be at least as lucrative as the oyster industry. Farming of windowpane oysters (Placuna placenta) began in the late 1940s in the tide flats of Bacoor Bay, the delicate, translucent Placuna shells being used for window glazing and shellcraft. In the early 1970s, however, the bay became increasingly polluted, the stocks could not survive, and they are still not found in the waters of the bay.
Young, A., & Serna, E. (1982). Country report: Philippines. In F. B. Davy & M. Graham (Eds.), Bivalve culture in Asia and the Pacific: proceedings of a workshop held in Singapore, 16-19 February 1982 (pp. 55–68). Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
PublisherInternational Development Research Centre
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Conference paperAQ Hurtado-Ponce - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentResearch on seaweeds focused on the carrageenan-producing Kappaphycus alvarezii and the agar-producing Gracilaria spp. Growth of K. alvarezii was better on horizontal lines than on vertical or cluster lines from bamboo rafts. All morphotypes (brown green, and red) grew faster at 50 cm than at 100 cm below the water surface, but the green morphotype showed better carrageenan properties. A socioeconomic survey of K. alvarezii farming in Panagatan Cays, Antique revealed that a farmer has an average annual production of 3 tons/ha (dry) with the fixed bottom and hanging longline methods. Three species of Gracilaria in natural beds in lloilo showed monthly variations in biomass and agar quality; G. heteroclada had the highest biomass and gel strength. When this species was grown in tanks, growth and agar sulfate content were influenced by the interaction of light, salinity, and nutrients. Enriched and unenriched stocks of G. heteroclada differed in agar quality. When G. heteroclada was grown with the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in extensive ponds, the highest growth rate and production were obtained at the seaweed stocking density of 250 g/m2; this was in November when average water temperature, transparency, and salinity were low. Salinity tolerance varies among Gracilaria species.Oyster (Crassostrea iredalei) and mussel (Perna viridis) farming in Western Visayas were assessed in 1992 in terms of the culture methods, socioeconomics, marketing, and profitability. A more localized survey of oyster and mussel fanning was conducted through rapid rural appraisal in two coastal towns in 1993. A farmer-participatory study followed in 1994 for the culture of oysters, mussels, seaweeds, and rabbitfishes in a river mouth in Dumangas, lloilo. Green mussel, brown mussel (Modiolus metcalfei), and seaweeds transplanted to Dumangas from Capiz have reproduced. In another study, the green mussel was tested as a biological filter in tiger shrimp ponds; shrimps stocked with mussels grew better than those without. A nationwide survey on the Placuna placenta fishery in 1993 showed 27 remaining 'kapis' beds; many others have been depleted due to excessive gathering, pollution, siltation, and trawling. Broodstocks are being developed to produce 'kapis' seed for grow-out and restocking. For the first time at AQD, adult donkey-ear abalone Haliotis asinina from the wild spawned naturally in laboratory tanks. Juvenile abalones can be successfully grown on Gracilaria or abalone diet.
Conference paperSM Aypa - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentAquaculture is regarded as the most promising source of protein food in the years ahead. Milkfish and Nile tilapia are the major fishes now produced but groupers, sea bass, rabbitfish, red snappers, carps, and catfishes are grown by some farmers. The tiger shrimp is still the most important cultured crustacean, but white shrimps and mudcrabs also have great potential. Oysters and mussels are produced in considerable amounts. Mariculture of the seaweed Eucheuma is now a well established industry, and the pond culture of Gracilaria for agar extraction is beginning to take off.
Conference paperMN Delmendo - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentThe paper reviews developments in Seafarming and searanching in the Philippines. Seafarming activities concentrated on seaweeds and molluscs, technology for which are already widely practiced. In Seafarming of oysters and mussels, technology is mature but only applied in traditional sites. As such, the quality of products and consumption is low due to known pollution of oyster and mussel farming areas. Seafarming of giant clams is just beginning. Hatchery techniques of producing juveniles are being refined for mass production and seeding of reef areas to enhance giant clam population. Seafarming of marine fishes is also practiced but constrained by the lack of seed stock. Sea cage fanning operators mainly depend on wild-caught fry and juveniles although the hatchery technology for sea bass has been developed. There is more research work to be done to mass-produce fry and juveniles for Seafarming of other fish species. Seafarming and searanching appear to be the future major means of supplementing the production of animal protein by year 2000 as arable land continues to dwindle. Declining arable land area would not be sufficient to produce the food needs of the increasing population. There is great potential for Seafarming and searanching to enhance coastal resources and produce more food. However, there is a need to provide stronger legal and institutional support for these activities to sustain development efforts.