Now showing items 1-20 of 283

    • Conference paper

      A preliminary report on the fauna of decapod crustacea in the mangrove and estuarine areas of Batan Bay, Panay Island, Philippines 

      H Motoh & NB Solis - In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Mangrove and Estuarine Area Development for the Indo-Pacific Region, Manila, Philippines, 14-19 November 1977, 1977 - Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines: Philippine Council for Agricultural and Resources Research
      In the Philippines, the total mangrove site for aquaculture development and others is about 576,000 hectares which constitute only 1.9 percent of the country's land resources. There are at present about 176,000 hectares of fishponds, representing 30.5 percent of the total mangrove resources in the country.

      Located in the northern part of Panay Island, 11°40' latitude and 122°30' longitude, Batan Bay has approximately 2,500 hectares with the average water depth of less than 5 meters during low tide. This bay consists of Port Batan, Banga Baylet and numerous tidal creeks. More than 80 percent of the coastal line in the bay is surrounded by mangrove areas and the rest is rocky or coconut forest. Shrimp fishing is considered an important fishery in Batan Bay. The main objectives of this survey are: 1) To know the species, particularly edible ones, of decapod crustaceae found in the mangrove and estuarine areas; 2) To know their ecology and life history; and 3) To provide the biological data available for protection or preservation of the mangrove area.
    • Conference paper

      A suctorean parasite of Penaeus monodon larvae 

      RQ Gacutan, AT Llobrera, CB Santiago, PJ Gutierrez & G Lio-Po - In Proceedings of the Second Biennial Crustacean Health Workshop, 1977 April 20-22, Galveston, Texas, 1979 - Sea Grant College Program, Texas A&M University
      A pathogenic suctorean, identified as Ephelota gemmipara was observed in P. monodon larvae spawned and reared in tanks. Commonly found to inhabit hydroid colonies, E. gemmipara has a stalked body with two types of tentacles, the sucking and piercing types, and was observed to reproduce by multiple exogenous budding.
    • Conference paper

      Effects of furanace on the development of larval stages of Penaeus monodon Fabricius 

      RQ Gacutan, AT Llobrera & MCL Baticados - In Proceedings of the Second Biennial Crustacean Health Workshop, 1977 April 20-22, Galveston, Texas, 1979 - Sea Grant College Program, Texas A&M University
      Successful molts and morphological defects in P. monodon zoeae (Z1, Z2, Z3) resulting from a 24-h exposure to 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L furanace in baths of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L were quantified. Molting was delayed in Z1, but not in Z2 and Z3 at 1.0 mg/L; considerably delayed in all sub-stages at 2.0 mg/L. Morphological defects in the telson, carapace, uropods and pereiopods were observed in high frequency in Z3 after the exposure. These abnormalities did not result in 1.0 mg/L. In Z2, a 6-h exposure is deemed optimum for bath in 1.0 mg/L as gauged from higher survival of larvae after 96 h.
    • Conference paper

      Cultivation of live feed for the rearing of sugpo (Penaeus monodon) larvae 

      WG Yap - In E Styczynska-Jurewicz, T Backiel, E Jaspers & G Persoone (Eds.), Cultivation of Fish Fry and Its Live Food. Proceedings of a Conference, 23-28 September 1977, Szymbark, Poland, 1979 - European Mariculture Society
      Series: European Mariculture Society Special Publication; No. 4
      The sugpo, Penaeus monodon, is a very important prawn species in Southeast Asia. It is extremely euryhaline and fast growing. Interest in the farming of this prawn species is very high. Unfortunately, the supply of natural fry is not sufficient. It is, therefore, necessary to develop the technology of breeding them in captivity and producing sufficient seed material. The Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department in Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, operates a hatchery to produce fry for experimental rearing in brackish water ponds and for various laboratory studies.
    • Conference paper

      Supplemental feeding of Tilapia mossambica 

      JB Pantastico & JP Baldia - In JE Halver & K Tiews (Eds.), Proceedings of a World Symposium on Finfish Nutrition and Fishfeed Technology, Hamburg 20-23 June, 1978, 1979 - Heenemann Verlagsgesellschaft
      T. mossambica were grown to marketable size in floating cages in Laguna de Bay at a stocking density of 75/m2. Those given supplemental feed 1 (rice bran:ipil-ipil:fish meal, 60:20:20) showed significantly faster growth than those fed with supplemental feed 2 (chopped snails:rice bran, 30:70). Controls, without supplemental feeding, showed slower growth rates as compared to the supplement-fed lots. A more efficient feed conversion ratio was obtained for feed 1 (4:1) as compared to feed 2 (6:1).

      Laboratory experiments in aquaria showed the feasibility of improving the growth of tilapia with ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal alone. Varying levels of ipil-ipil, given at 3, 6, and 9% of the body weight, increased the body weight to 0.75 g, 1.68 g, and 2.94 g, respectively. Moreover, the crude protein content of tilapia increased proportionately with increasing levels of ipil-ipil leaf meal.

      The significance of the above results in the light of establishing a tilapia lake farming industry and its effect on the improved nutrition of the people were discussed.
    • Conference paper

      Successful inoculation of Artemia and production of cysts in man-made salterns in the Philippines 

      C de los Santos Jr., P Sorgeloos, A Bernardino & EM Laviña - In G Persoone, P Sorgeloos, O Roels & E Jaspers (Eds.), The Brine Shrimp Artemia. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the brine shrimp Artemia salina, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA, August 20-23, 1979., 1980 - Universa Press
      The objective of the inoculation described in this paper was to test the feasibility of culturing Artemia in man-made earthen salterns and of producing adults and cysts for use in aquaculture projects in the Philippines. San Francisco Bay (California, USA) Artemia were inoculated in two concrete tanks and in four earthen ponds which are part of a small local salt factory.

      It was found that Artemia can be grown (with continuous production of nauplii and cysts) year-round in covered concrete tanks and in open concrete tanks and earthen ponds during the dry season (February to June). Lethal effects of too high water temperatures (>35°C) to the cultures were anticipated by the use of green coconut fronds placed on the water surface alongside the walls of the tanks and the earthen dikes.

      Rice bran enriched with vitamins and traces of minerals appeared to be a good food for Artemia cultured in aerated concrete tanks; in the earthen salt ponds the brine shrimp grew well on the natural food present.

      Over a 3 month production period, 26 kg dry weight cysts and 150 kg live weight adults have been harvested from a total surface of 1.7 ha of salt ponds and brine tanks.
    • Conference paper

      Preliminary trials of combined Artemia rearing and salt production in earthen salt ponds in the Philippines 

      JH Primavera, D Estenor & P Acosta - In G Persoone, P Sorgeloos, O Roels & E Jaspers (Eds.), The Brine Shrimp Artemia. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the brine shrimp Artemia salina, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA, August 20-23, 1979., 1980 - Universa Press
      This paper describes trials at combining Artemia rearing with salt production during the dry season, in newly-constructed earthen salt ponds (reservoir, evaporation, concentration, and crystallization ponds, total area of 5,000 m2 at the Leganes, Iloilo Station of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.

      Salt production by the solar method amounted to 250 sacks of slat over 30 days or an average of 8 sacks/day (1 sack = 50 kg).

      Two successful Artemia inoculations were undertaken in May and June 1979 respectively : in both cases the adult stage was reached after 1 week. The May population died off when the salinity was suddenly increased by salt addition. The June population gradually disappeared at the onset of the rainy season.
    • Conference paper

      Handling and rearing of hatchery-produced shrimp postlarvae from small-scale hatchery 

      FD Apud - In Working Party on Small-Scale Shrimp/Prawn Hatcheries in Southeast Asia, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 16-21 November 1981, 1982 - South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme
      This paper discusses the handling and rearing of hatchery-produced Penaeus post larvae. The survival and growth of hatchery produced fry and wild caught fry are discussed.
    • Conference paper

      Culture of invertebrates as food organisms for village-level fish hatcheries 

      RD Guerrero III - In Report of the Training Course on Growing Food Organisms for Fish Hatcheries: Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 3-22 August 1981, 1982 - South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme
      A review is presented of some practical methods that may be applied by fish farmers in producing food organisms for fish and prawn hatcheries. Organisms involved in the discussion include Moina, chironomid larvae, mosquito (Culex) larvae and earthworm (Lunbricus).
    • Conference paper

      Culture of zooplankton (Brachionus and Moina) 

      E Tech - In Report of the Training Course on Growing Food Organisms for Fish Hatcheries: Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 3-22 August 1981, 1982 - South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme
    • Conference paper

      Studies on broodstock of sugpo Penaeus monodon Fabricius and other penaeids at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department 

      JH Primavera - In Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal Aquaculture held at Cochin from January 12 to 18, 1980. Part 1: Prawn Culture, 1982 - Cochin, India: The Marine Biological Association of India
      For hatchery production of Penaeus monodon and other penaeid fry, the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department is dependent mainly on captive broodstock in the form of ablated females, using up to 1,500 spawners in one year. The availability of such broodstock has enabled us to gather information on the reproductive biology as well as broodstock techniques for P. monodon and other species. This paper discusses studies on courtship and mating behaviour, fecundity, egg quality and rematuration; and requirements for induced maturation (source and age of stock, sex ratio, feeding, tank management, etc.) of P. monodon. A comparison of biological and construction requirements of two broodstock systems — land-based tanks and marine pens — is made. Work on other penaeids, mainly P. indicus is discussed. Lastly, areas for future research on penaeid maturation are highlighted.
    • Conference paper

      Development of broodstock for small-scale shrimp hatchery (with particular reference to Penaeus monodon) 

      JH Primavera - In Working Party on Small-Scale Shrimp/Prawn Hatcheries in Southeast Asia, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 16-21 November 1981, 1982 - South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme
      To be self-sufficient in spawner/larval supply, a small-scale Penaeus monodon hatchery should have the following: 1) broodstock tanks or pens depending on location and other factors; 2) pond sources of broodstock of appropriate size and age; and 3) maturation by ablation (optional for P. indicus and P. merguensis).
    • Conference paper

      Culture of phytoplankton 

      E Tech - In Report of the Training Course on Growing Food Organisms for Fish Hatcheries: Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 3-22 August 1981, 1982 - South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme
    • Conference paper

      Recent developments in design and management of small-scale hatchery for Penaeus monodon in the Philippines 

      PG Gabasa Jr. - In Working Party on Small-Scale Shrimp/Prawn Hatcheries in Southeast Asia, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 16-21 November 1981, 1982 - South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme
      It is a common belief that the zoea of Penaeus monodon are completely filter feeders. Thus, diatoms like chaetoceros and phytoflagellates are maintained at high feeding densities as much as 80 000 cells/ml in hatchery tanks during the zoeal states of the P.monodon. This feeding scheme often results in the reddening of the larvae followed by weakening, loss of appetite and eventual mass mortality.

      It was found out recently that zoea larvae are not completely filter feeders. It was observed as early as Zoae 1, the mouth parts of the larvae are already functional and can eat food particles as big as Artimeia and Brachionus.

      Based on this observation, a new feeding scheme was developed. Boiled egg yolk is fed to the larvae at 15-22 particles (as big as Brachionus) per ml from Zoea 2 to Mysis 3 stages. Tetraselmis is given from Zoea 1 to Mysis 3 stages at a low density level of 5 000 cells/ml. Artemia is also fed at 10-15 individuals/ml from Mysis 1 to Postlarvae 5. If Tetraselmis is not available, bread yeast is given from Zoea 1 to 3 at 0.1-03 g/ton as supplementery feed. With this new feeding scheme, the hatchery producers have been greatly simplified considering that the most difficult and tedious part in larval rearing is the maintenance of algal food especially diatoms.

      This feeding scheme was tested in a private hatchery in Bataan, Aklan province by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department from July to October 1981. All 44 runs were successful, yielding survival rates ranging from 22 to 75 percent and an average rate of 52.9 percent.

      The hatchery system was further simplified when experiments at the Bataan Substation of the SEAFDEC AQD revealed that as high as 60 percent survival can be attained with minimal aeration. Instead of centralized aeration system using compressors or blowers, portable aquarium-type aerators (5-watt) could be use thus minimizing energy consumption.

      Based on these developments, a new model for a small-scale hatchery system is proposed.

      based
    • Conference paper

      Yeasts as food organisms in aquaculture 

      CT Villegas - In Report of the Training Course on Growing Food Organisms for Fish Hatcheries: Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 3-22 August 1981, 1982 - South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme
      The use of yeast as feed in aquaculture is discussed. It has been successfully used as feed for Penaeus japonicus larvae, for Brachionus plicatilis mass culture, and for the improvement of nutritional quality of Tigriopus japonicus. It has been found most effective as supplemental food when enough phytoplankton cannot be supplied.
    • Conference paper

      Status of Macrobrachium research at Binangonan Research Station (SEAFDEC, Philippines) 

      GG Padilla - In MB New (Ed.), Giant Prawn Farming. Selected Papers presented at ‘Giant Prawn 1980’, an international conference on freshwater prawn farming held in Bangkok, Thailand, June 15–21, 1980, 1982 - Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company
      Series: Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, Vol. 10
      The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium abounds in the rivers, lakes and estuaries of the Philippines. At SEAFDEC, Binangonan Research Station, a few preliminary studies have been conducted on Macrobrachium sp. and M. rosenbergii . A recent preliminary survey of nearby river systems showed that there is a big demand for Macrobrachium in the market.
    • Conference paper

      Biology, use and culture of Artemia 

      NA Jumalon, RF Figueroa, AG Mabaylan & DG Estenor - In Report of the Training Course on Growing Food Organisms for Fish Hatcheries, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 3-22 August 1981, 1982 - South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme
    • Conference paper

      Country report: Philippines 

      A Young & E Serna - In FB Davy & M Graham (Eds.), Bivalve culture in Asia and the Pacific: proceedings of a workshop held in Singapore, 16-19 February 1982, 1982 - International Development Research Centre
      Natural populations of oysters and mussels have long been gathered for food by coastal communities in the Philippines, and bivalve farming began in early 1900. The first farms were no more than a series of bamboo poles inserted in the muddy bottom of Manila Bay in Bacoor Cavite. In May 1934, the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) established a pilot oyster farm in Binakayan, Cavite Province, Luzon, and a lucrative industry soon grew up. By 1950, about 200 ha of private farms existed in Bacoor Bay, but, in the late 1950s, mussels appeared on the farms and threatened the industry. The response of BFAR was to initiate farms for mussels, and the results prompted the establishment of a mussel industry that proved to be at least as lucrative as the oyster industry.

      Farming of windowpane oysters (Placuna placenta) began in the late 1940s in the tide flats of Bacoor Bay, the delicate, translucent Placuna shells being used for window glazing and shellcraft. In the early 1970s, however, the bay became increasingly polluted, the stocks could not survive, and they are still not found in the waters of the bay.
    • Conference paper

      Culture and screening of food organisms as potential larval food for finfish and shellfish 

      CT Villegas - In Report of the Training Course on Growing Food Organisms for Fish Hatcheries: Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 3-22 August 1981, 1982 - South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme
      The culture of food organisms for fin and shellfish larvae is discussed in detail. Some of the artificial and enriched media that have been developed and tested for microalgae culture are enumerated and some isolation methods are given. Culture methods for phytoplankton and zooplankton are described. The screening, evaluation, nutritive value and suitability of food organisms are considered and some criteria for the selection of food organisms and best food conditions for larvae are presented.
    • Conference paper

      Survival, maturation, fecundity and hatching rates of unablated and ablated Penaeus indicus H.M. Edwards from brackishwater ponds 

      JH Primavera, T Young & C de los Reyes - In Proceedings of the Symposium on Coastal Aquaculture, 12-18 January 1980, Cochin, India. Part 1: Prawn Culture, 1982 - The Marine Biological Association of India
      Penaeus indicus H. M. Edwards harvested after three months of rearing in brackishwater ponds and averaging 6.9 g for females and 5.6 g for males were stocked in two 12 cu m flowthrough ferrocement tanks at 240 females and 200 males per tank. The females were ablated on one eyestalk in one tank and remained unablated in the other tank ; all males were unablated. Ablated females spawned up to 7 times per female; unablated females spawned up to only 3 times during the two month duration of the experiment. Ablated females produced a total number of 17.5 x 106 eggs, 6.6 x 106 nauplii, and an average of 23,480 eggs/spawning and 37.8 % hatching rate from a total of 757 spawnings. Unablated females produced a total of 2.0 x 106 eggs, 1.1 X 106 nauplii, and an average of 26,990 eggs/spawning and 53.9 % hatching rate from a total of 74 spawnings. Survival of ablated females was 53.5 % compared to 69.4 % for unablated females ; males in both tanks averaged more than 90% survival.