Cage nursery of high-value fishes in brackishwater ponds: seabass, grouper, snapper, pompano
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This extension manual describes nursery pond requirements, nursery rearing procedures, common diseases of young marine fish, and economic analysis of cage nursery as an enterprise separate from hatchery and grow-out culture.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
SeriesAquaculture extension manual; No. 54
Format23 pages : color illustrations.
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BookEB Coniza, CL Marte, RM Coloso & FL Huervana - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Aquaculture extension manual No. 45Fingerling production of milkfish in ponds maybe operated as a commercial enterprise or a component of milkfish farming that comprises nursery, transition and rearing or grow-out phases. The fishpond nursery is used to grow milkfish fry to fingerlings 1-3 g in weight or 1-2 inches in length. The nursery pond is the smallest of the major fishpond compartment ranging from 500 to 5,000 m2, and is about 10% of the total farming area. The pond is prepared with utmost care to eliminate predators and competitors. The area should have good topography, is free from flooding and should have soil with good water retention properties for good dike construction and efficient culture management. Water supply should be adequate year-round and free from pollutants. Good pond water quality is maintained and natural food should be adequate to enhance growth and survival. With high stocking densities, supplemental feed is also provided. The three types of nurseries are based on feed sources: lablab, plankton with supplemental feeding and direct feeding. Select hatchery-reared fry (21 day old) that swim actively in schools, are uniform in size, have robust body, and are resistant to handling and transport stress. The ideal fry stocking density is 5-40 pieces/m2. Survival ranging from 50-90% can be expected after 25-45 days of rearing. Harvest, packing, transport, acclimation and stocking of the fry or fingerlings are carefully done during the cooler part of the day. Economic indicators show that fingerlings production is a profitable business. The improvement of milkfish grow-out technology from extensive or traditional to modified-extensive, semi-intensive and intensive culture in ponds, pens or in sea cages has increased demand for good quality fingerlings. Mass production of hatchery-reared fingerlings in earthen nursery ponds during peak season of fry availability can help bridge the supply gap. A steady supply of fingerlings for a whole year s operation will further increase production and ensure a sustainable supply of affordable market-sized fish.
Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the bacterial microbiota of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in earthen ponds in the Philippines R Pakingking Jr., P Palma & R Usero -
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2015 - Springer VerlagThe quantity and composition of the bacterial microbiota in the rearing water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus collected every 2 weeks from Day 30 to Day 120 after stocking for grow-out culture in 6 earthen brackish water ponds in the Philippines were examined. The total heterotrophic aerobic bacterial counts obtained in the water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia ranged from 103 to 104 c.f.u. ml−1, 103–105, 105–107 and 104–107 c.f.u. g−1, respectively. In terms of composition, a total of 20 bacterial genera and 31 species were identified with the preponderance of gram-negative bacteria constituting 84% of all bacterial isolates examined. Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Shewanella putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus spp. and Vibrio cholerae were the dominant bacteria identified in the gills and intestine of tilapia. These bacteria also dominated in the pond sediment and rearing water, except for the nil isolation of S. putrefaciens and V. cholerae in the water samples examined, indicating that resident bacteria in the pond water and sediment congruently typify the composition of bacterial microbiota in the gills and intestine of tilapia which under stressful conditions may propel the ascendance of disease epizootics.
BookGS Jamerlan & RM Coloso - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 46An extension manual describing criteria for site selection, monoculture and polyculture operations including feeds and feeding, harvest, common diseases, economic analysis.