The use of potassium permanganate against trichodiniasis on milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerlings
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Trichodiniasis was noted in an intensive milkfish (Chanos chanos) nursery pond in Dumangas, Iloilo, Philippines. It was predominantly caused by a small trichodinid species (body diameter=23-29 µm) with well-developed denticles, identified as Paratrichodina sp. The trichodinid infection resulted in proliferative changes, including clubbing and epithelial hyperplasis of the gill lamellae sufficient to disrupt respiratory function. Tolerance tests of milkfish fingerlings in an earthen pond-simulated environment resulted in a 24 h TL90 value of 1.98 ± 0.25 ppm KMnO4. A treatment of 1.0 ppm KMnO4 was highly efficacious (96%) in eliminating trichodinids on gills with minimal mortality of treated milkfish observed 24 hours post-treatment.
CitationPalma, P. A., Cruz-Lacierda, E. R., & Corre Jr., V. L. (2015). The use of potassium permanganate against trichodiniasis on milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerlings.
PublisherEuropean Association of Fish Pathologists
- Journal Articles 
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Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Application of the United States Soybean Export Council program's soy-optimized floating feeds and low volume, high density cage aquaculture technologies LLL Manalac, M Cremer & HP Lan - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe United States Soybean Export Council s (USSEC) Soy-In-Aquaculture (SIA) project in the Philippines introduced the Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cage culture production methodology in 2003. The aim of this technology is to maximize farmers profit, improve productivity, reduce feed conversion ratios (FCR) and limit environmental degradation. The Philippine fish farmers were very conservative and hesitant about adopting the USSEC SIA Low Volume High Density (LVHD) cage culture technology, particularly the new feeding techniques using extruded floating feeds. This conservative attitude was highlighted with different projects using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), milkfish (Chanos chanos) and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) in USSEC SIA LVHD cage feeding demonstrations conducted in different commercial farms in the Philippines.