Status and prospects of aquaculture of threatened echinoderms in the Philippines for stock enhancement and restocking
MetadataShow full item record
Echinoderms are either specifically targeted by gleaners and divers, or form part of the multispecies invertebrate fishery in many coastal areas in the Philippines. The existence of a local sea urchin market in northern Philippines (e.g., Pangasinan, La Union) benefits many coastal families that depend on this fishery for subsistence. In Bolinao, Pangasinan, over 40 families are reportedly dependent on this fishery. Major sea urchin species collected include Tripneustes gratilla, Diadema spp. and Salmacis spp. In the case of holothurian fishery, with over a century of fishery history for holothurians, at least 25 species mostly belonging to the families Holothuriidae and Stichopodidae are commercially important (Schoppe 2000). While there may be local consumption of both fresh and dried products, the latter are largely exported. Echinoderm fishery is dependent on wild stock. The high demand far exceeding supply, good global market prices and their biology (e.g., slow mobility, shallow water benthic habitat) render them vulnerable to overexploitation. The contribution of echinoderm products to the Philippine economy is substantial. The relative contribution of echinoderm products to the income and socio-economic well-being of fisherfolk who collect these invertebrates is undocumented. However, it has been noted that middlemen, especially local buyers who sell trepang in Manila and Manila-based traders-exporters monopolize the profits (F. Nievales, unpublished data). Products from both echinoderm groups remain in short supply in the country and so trading, limited only by declining natural stock, continues to be lucrative.
Nievales, M. F. J., Juinio-Meñez, M. A., & Bangi, H. G. (2006). Status and prospects of aquaculture of threatened echinoderms in the Philippines for stock enhancement and restocking. In J. H. Primavera, E. T. Quinitio, & M. R. R. Eguia (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005 (pp. 61-69). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/2934
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Echinoderm culture; Echinoderm fisheries; Sea cucumber fisheries; Threatened species; Nature conservation; Vulnerable species; Sea urchin fisheries; Marine aquaculture; Stock assessment; Depleted stocks; Hatcheries; Aquaculture facilities; Seed production; Stocking (organisms); Philippines; Holothuria scabra; Tripneustes gratilla; Diadema; Salmacis
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Conference paperH Choudara - In JH Primavera, ET Quinitio & MR Eguia (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005, 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterFisheries development in Lao PDR is confined to inland fisheries development and sustainable freshwater aquaculture including culture-enhanced capture fisheries and fishery-enhanced aquaculture. Given the potential of water, wetland and aquatic resources and the magnitude of decline in fish catches from the Mekong River and its tributaries, the Government of Lao PDR has given priority to fisheries development with strong concern for sustainable aquaculture. The overall policy framework is therefore geared toward the sustainable use, appropriate management and protection of natural resources: forest, land and water resource including aquatic biodiversity. The national goal for fisheries development during the last decade was focused on how to increase fish production from aquaculture while maintaining capture fisheries, recognizing that about 50% of the dietary protein of Lao people comes from living aquatic resources which are important for food security of the nation.
Potential and prospects of southeast Asian eel resources for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture development The world demand for river eels has been increasing mainly because of the market expansion of some delicacies such as the kabayaki (broiled eel with sweet soy sauce) in East Asia. While most of the world’s eel production is derived from aquaculture, it should be noted that eel aquaculture is still dependent on the natural resources. As techniques for the full-life cycle aquaculture of eels have not yet been fully developed for commercial use, the eel aquaculture industry is still solely dependent on wild resources for seed stocks. However, the natural resources had been confronted with various factors that could possibly create negative impacts on the eel resources including habitat alteration, overexploitation, climate change, pollution, and incidence of diseases. Thus, concerns on the sustainability of various eel species in the world have increased in recent years. It should be reckoned that the European and American eels are already threatened to certain degree by pollution and damming (or the construction of dams that prevent their migration to freshwater bodies) leading to almost “close to collapse” of the European eel resources. This situation prompted CITES to list the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in CITES Appendix II in 2009 and accordingly, trade restrictions of the European eel and its products came into effect. In Southeast Asia, it is known that aquaculture and inland capture fisheries of eel are practiced but data and information on the total production of eel in the region remain very minimal. In this regard, the Southeast Asian countries have been encouraged to report their respective eel production to SEAFDEC in order that the status and trend of the region’s eel resources could be established and the statistics could be appropriately reflected in the Fishery Statistical Bulletin of Southeast Asia produced yearly by SEAFDEC. Meanwhile, in an effort to conserve the eel resources in Southeast Asia, SEAFDEC recently launched a project on Conservation, Management and Sustainable Utilization of Eel Resources in Southeast Asia with funding support from the Trust Fund for SEAFDEC of the Fisheries Agency of Japan.
Conference paperPC Liong, HB Hanafi, ZO Merican & G Nagaraj - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMalaysia is a fish-consuming country with fish representing 60% of a total animal protein intake. At an annual per capita consumption of 32 kg some 560 000 mt of fish is required for the projected of 17.5 million people in year 2000. Coastal marine capture fisheries, the mainstay of Malaysia's fishsupply, has not shown any increase in landings over the last few years. In fact in 1985 there was a decline of 3.7% compared to 1984 fish landings. This declining contribution of marine fisheries is compensated by an increase in aquaculture production. In 1985, aquaculture contributed 51 709 mt to the total fish supply. This represents 10% of the total fish landings of 514 570 mt or 13% of total table (edible) fish landings. Malaysia does not have a long standing aquaculture tradition unlike its neighbours in the Indo-Pacific. Even then, the industry has seen rapid growth in the last few years. Today there are 19 species of finfishes, crustaceans and shellfish cultured in the country. The main freshwater fish species bred and cultured are bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Indonesian carp (Punctius gonionotus), catfish (Clarias macrocephalus and Pangasius spp), snakefish gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) and tilapia (mainly Oreochromis niloticus). Marine finfishes bred and cultured are sea bass (Lates calcarifer), grouper (Epinephelus sp.) and snapper (Lutjanus johni). Penaeus monodon is the dominant marine prawn species bred and cultured but culture of P. merguiensis is receiving considerable interest. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the only freshwater prawn cultured commercially. Molluscs cultured are the blood clam (Anadara granosa) and the green mussel (Perna viridis). In 1985, blood clam and mussel culture accounted for 87% of all aquaculture production of Malaysia, freshwater fish 12%, floating cage culture of marine fish 0.7% and brackishwater pond culture 0.3%. In terms of value blood clam and mussels represented 30% (M$15M) of total value (M$49.5M), freshwater fish 57% (M$28M),cage culture of marine fin fishes 7% (M$3.4M),and brackishwater pond production 6% (M$2.1M). Aquaculture in Malaysia has considerable growth potential. It is projected that 22 000 ha of mangrove will be opened by the year 2000 for shrimp culture. Some 330 000 m2 of protected coastal waters have been identified for cage culture. Some 6500 rafts can considerably expand the present capacity. In freshwater culture about 8000 ha of land and 17 500 ha of mining pools can be developed while 200 000 ha of artificial lakes and impoundments for freshwater fish cage culture are available. Yet such development is not without constraints. Freshwater finfish culture is hampered by lack of good quality broodstock. There is also a limited market for freshwater finfishes. Marine finfish culture is limited by lack of fingerlings and good quality compounded diet to replace trash fish which is deteriorating in quality and quantity. Marine prawn culture is heavily dependent on wild spawners, the supply unpredictable and inadequate. Acid sulfate soil continues to cause the deterioration of brackishwater ponds. Cockles and mussels can be sold to export markets only if they meet specific quality standards.