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  • Conference paper

    Diseases affecting wild and farmed mud crab in the Philippines 

    EA Tendencia & MVC Cabilitasan - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mortalities due to cannibalism and diseases have been reported as major problems in the grow-out phase of mud crab production. This study aimed to identify and describe diseases affecting farmed and wild mud crab (mangrove crab) including predisposing, risk and protective factors, and possible prevention and control measures. A total of 767 wild and farmed mud crab samples were collected. External examination showed abnormalities such as short abdominal flap, discoloration of the abdominal region, darker carapace, lesions on carapace, claws and legs, and presence of epibionts like algae and the barnacles Balanus sp. on the carapace. Internally, necrotic, black and brown gills, and discolored gonads were observed. Stalked barnacles, Octolasmis spp., were observed in the gills. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was detected in 14 samples sourced from farms and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in 2 wild samples. WSSV was implicated in mortality cases. Low temperature and presence of WSSV positive shrimp were identified as risk factors for WSSV infection or outbreak. Pathogenicity tests for some isolated bacteria suggested that these may cause mortality in mud crab under stressful conditions. To prevent mortality due to WSSV infection, it is recommended to avoid polyculture of mud crab with shrimp and/or other crustaceans.
  • Conference paper

    Initiatives on mud crab culture at the Palawan Aquaculture Corporation 

    E Tech, C Emboltorio, D Galila, C Ogsimer & K Lim - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mud crab (Scylla spp) has long been a prime commodity in both local and global market and is regarded as one of the important high-value crustacean species produced in the Philippines. Decades ago, its culture basically relied on the availability of wild seedstock collected and grown to marketable size, or on wild lean adult crabs that were fattened for a short period.

    Developments and refinements in the hatchery and nursery techniques paved the way to bringing up culture activities to commercial levels. The Palawan Aquaculture Corporation embarked on mud crab culture in the mid 2014 where initial trials started. Collaboration with SEAFDEC/AQD was later forged bringing forth improvements in the hatchery, nursery and grow-out culture. Hatchery-reared juvenile crabs are now being sold.
  • Conference paper

    Recent developments and enhancing transfer of the nursery technology for the mud crab Scylla serrata 

    FD Parado-Estepa, V Alava, E Garibay, C Bejemino, J Sumile, J Silvestre & ET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The development of hatchery techniques for seed production of mud crab is expected to address the present problem on the depletion of wild seedstock supply for stocking in grow-out ponds. The nursery serves as the link between the two phases of culture as this involves growing of juvenile crabs produced in the hatchery to sizes that are suitable for stocking in the ponds.

    Nursery rearing involves the use of net cages installed in ponds as holding system for ease in harvest and retrieval of crabs. In the first nursery phase, 0.3-0.5 cm carapace width (CW) juvenile crabs are reared to 1.5-2.0 cm CW for 3-4 weeks and stocks are harvested for selling or are grown further in a second nursery phase in which crabs reach 2.5-3.0 cm after another 3-4 weeks. This paper includes a review of techniques initially developed for the nursery and more recent refinements which involve the use of higher crab instar densities, provision of suitable shelters, trimming of claws and sorting. In addition, production results in farms of collaborators are presented to highlight the efficiency of dissemination and also discusses the challenges faced by the potential nursery industry.
  • Conference paper

    Updates on the larviculture of mud crab at SEAFDEC/AQD 

    ET Quinitio, JJDC Huervana, JC Virgula & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Although the mud crab (Scylla serrata) hatchery technology has been developed, issues such as high cost of production due to the need for additional facilities and labor for natural food culture, inconsistent survival rate at megalopa stage due to Molt Death Syndrome (MDS), and disease due to luminescent bacteria (Vibrio spp.), remain to be addressed. Refinements on the existing mud crab larviculture technology were done to address these problems.

    Poor nutrition, low water temperature and application of prophylaxis during the zoea l stage have been identified as possible causes of MDS. Six shrimp formulated diets (FD) were tested, and 3 of these proved to be suitable for mud crab larvicuture. Larval performance was compared using the 3 diets + natural food (NF, rotifers and Artemia) and NF alone as control. No significant difference was noted in the survival among the 4 treatments, although BP Nippai fed larvae had higher values. Lesser occurrence of MDS was observed in all the larvae fed FD+NF. Three mud crab larval diets with various attractants (squid, annelids, and squid + annelids) were also formulated and fed to the larvae. Results showed no significant difference among the 3 diets. The results of another experiment investigating the effects of the reduction of natural food showed that larvae fed 50% NF + 50% FD and 75%NF + 25% FD had higher survival compared to those fed 75% AD +25% NF and no NF at all. The results indicate that the larvae cannot survive with formulated diet alone. It has been observed that frequency of antibiotic application can be reduced to every 5 days if good quality mud crab larvae are used. Formalin stress test proved to be a reliable method to determine the quality of a batch of newly hatched zoeae. All prophylactic treatments are stopped when megalopae reach the benthic stage.

    To accelerate the dissemination of science-based mud crab hatchery technology to industry stakeholders, SEAFDEC/AQD entered into an agreement with private hatchery operators, State Universities and Colleges, and Local Government Units on giving assistance during initial hatchery operations. Technicians were given free training, followed by in-situ hatchery operations with assistance from SEAFDEC/AQD with the funding from PCAARRD-DOST. Crablets are now being produced by the collaborators. Increase in the production of hatchery-reared crablets will eventually reduce the dependence on wild-sourced mud crab seed stock for farming.
  • Conference paper

    Capacity building initiatives of Winrock International on mud crab culture in the Caraga Region 

    J Nobillos, D Gudahl & J Orprecio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper presents the output of the capacity building initiatives of Winrock International on Mud crab culture in the Caraga Region, Philippines. The capacity building seminar included lectures on the mud crab biology, pond preparation, nursery and grow-out culture, fattening, and soft-shell crab farming. Identification of the various crab body parts, actual pond preparation, nursery and grow-out culture of crab were demonstrated after the series of lectures.
  • Conference paper

    Mud crab production trials at the College of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Aklan State University, New Washington, Aklan 

    YH Primavera-Tirol, R de la Cruz & EB Pastrana - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Two hatchery and nursery trials have been conducted at the College of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Aklan State University (ASU) for the Multi-species Hatchery and Fishfarm Project from August to September 2014 and April to May 2015, in collaboration with the Aquaculture Department (AQD), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) under the National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program of the PCAARRD-DOST.

    Two ASU staff underwent training on Mud Crab Hatchery, Nursery and Grow-out Operations at SEAFDEC/AQD from September to October 2013. This was followed by SEAFDEC/AQD’s provision of technical assistance during the actual hatchery and nursery operations using Scylla serrata at ASU. Survival rates of 3% and of 66-76% were recorded in the hatchery and nursery phases, respectively. The natural food consisting of rotifer and Artemia, and commercial formulated diet were fed to S. serrata larvae (zoea to megalopa). Juvenile crabs were fed formulated feeds and molluscs. Water temperature ranged from 27 to 30°C and salinity from 29 to 33 ppt in the hatchery. Initial results and insights are discussed and evaluated as guide for future hatchery and nursery protocols.
  • Conference paper

    Population structure of Scylla serrata from microsatellite and mtDNA markers 

    CCE Vince Cruz & MC Ablan-Lagman - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Determination of the population structure and connectivity of natural populations of Scylla serrata are useful tools for decision making related to conservation and management efforts of this species. They provide important considerations as recovery and sustainability of the industry relies on the availability of hardy recruits that can replenish harvested resources from the system. In the case of marine domesticated species, admixture is expected due to commodity trade and exchanges.

    Current population structure of five wild populations of S. serrata from Pangasinan, Bataan, Cagayan, Quezon, and Panay was determined using five microsatellite markers, cross-amplified from Scylla paramamosain in a total of 259 samples. Mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences of 25 representative individuals from the same locations were used to provide a comparison with original evolutionary patterns. Quality check of microsatellite data revealed no null alleles in the data set, with all loci and populations exhibiting Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. Pairwise FST analysis reveals FST values between 0.001-0.08432 with 9 out of the 16 possible comparisons considered significant. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the 16S rDNA sequences, supported by bootstrap values. Both sets of data suggest 2 distinct groupings: the east coast populations of Cagayan and Quezon, the west coast populations of Pangasinan and Bataan, with admixture observed in the group from Panay. Additional data from 5 microsatellite markers specifically developed for S. serrata and the D-loop region will be added to the analysis.

    The results from both mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, revealing an East-West separation of S. serrata populations, suggest that current and evolutionary population patterns are matching. Aquaculture practices appear to have not yet significantly affected the population structure of this domesticated species, as initially speculated.
  • Conference paper

    Genetic diversity and stock delineation of Philippine populations of the orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea 

    FJM Paran & RJ Ravago-Gotanco - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is regarded as an important fishery resource due to high demand and high market value. However, mud crab populations are threatened by over exploitation and habitat degradation, and would benefit from resource management interventions. The study examined patterns of genetic diversity and connectivity of orange mud crab populations across the Philippines, with the aim of identifying putative management units. A total of 387 Scylla olivacea were collected from ten localities across the Philippine archipelago. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial control region (mtDNA-CR) DNA sequences revealed cryptic diversity among Scylla olivacea specimens with four mitochondrial lineages recovered. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that Philippine populations do not constitute a single genetic stock (0ST=0.00262; P=0.00015). Thirteen microsatellite loci were also utilized as additional markers to infer population structure and estimate genetic variation. Overall, S. olivacea populations exhibit high haplotype diversity (mean h=0.9803) and nucleotide diversity (mean ~p3.46%), which may be indicative of a large, stable population within Philippine archipelagic waters. This study provides information on genetic diversity and population structure of S. olivacea, which will be useful towards developing management and conservation strategies for sustainable development of natural S. olivacea populations in the Philippines.
  • Conference paper

    Mud crab Scylla serrata hatchery operation 

    M Santos & F Santos - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The initial exposure of the Santos family in aquaculture was the culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos) and mud crab (Scylla serrata) in brackishwater pond in Quezon. The milkfish fry were obtained from our own milkfish hatchery, in which several broodstock are maintained as source of eggs. The juvenile crabs for stocking were wild-caught obtained from Quezon, Camarines or Bicol Region traders. In the late 2012, SEAFDEC/AQD collaborated with the Mari-al Hatchery for the seed production of mud crab under the National Mud Crab S and T Program of the Department of Science and Technology. This collaboration was timely since the source of juvenile crabs was no longer reliable. Furthermore, excess crabs that would be produced from the hatchery can also be sold to other farmers. Training at SEAFDEC/AQD and technical assistance on site were provided by SEAFDEC/AQD prior to the operation of the mud crab hatchery. Part of the existing milkfish hatchery facilities were utilized for the crab larval rearing. The protocol of SEAFDEC/AQD was followed with some modifications based on the existing facilities and source of water supply. After the successful runs, a separate hatchery facility dedicated for mud crab larval rearing was constructed in 2013. Four runs were conducted with 1-2% survival rate from zoea 1 to crab instar. Problems encountered during the runs include: insufficient rotifers since the culture had to be shared with milkfish larvae, poor water quality due to typhoon and presence of a wharf nearby, low water temperature, human error, resignation of trained staff, lack of good quality broodstock source nearby, and MDS. The problems were addressed one by one. Although the technology has been developed, this has to be modified accordingly.
  • Conference paper

    High throughput RNA sequencing reveals temperature tolerance mechanisms in Scylla serrata 

    MC Ablan-Lagman & E Meyer - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The effects of increasing temperature from global climate change threaten the sustainability and production of mud crabs from farms and wild populations in mangroves. Adaptation of mud crab populations to temperature stress is difficult to evaluate until now, with the emergence of RNA-Seq, a method which evaluates total mRNA expression under different conditions. In this study, 10 individuals each of S. serrata from Buguey, Cagayan were exposed to 26~’C and 32~’C for two weeks and the mRNA profiles were compared based on 186 million high quality pair-end reads which were aligned to a S. serrata reference transcriptome assembled de novo from 24,350 contigs with an average N50 of 1564 bp. Temperature related differences in gene expression were not significantly detected between the control and treatment groups and this was mostly due to the highly expressed genes such as the low and high molecular weight heat shock proteins. However, variations were greater among genes involved in the process of cell cycle regulation, the dissimilation processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, reproduction and transport across membranes. Greater differences were observed between immature or mature males and females.
  • Conference paper

    Identification of mud crab species in coastal areas of Pangasinan 

    RB Cerezo & MC Tapia - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The study was conducted to identify the mud crab species (Scylla spp.) that thrive in 12 coastal municipalities and 2 cities in Pangasinan. Ten mud crab samples were taken from each of the sampling site and classified based on Keenan et al. (1998). Likewise, the abundance and differences in size and weight of the mud crab samples were determined. The study showed that there are only three mud crab species, Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea, found in the coastal areas of Pangasinan. S. serrata was the most abundant species (54.28%), followed by S. tranquebarica (24.28%) and S. olivacea (22.14%). Crabs weighing more than 300 g (~.12 cm carapace width or CW) were obtained from the municipalities of Anda, Bolinao, Dasol, Burgos, Bani, Agno, Alaminos and Infanta. These municipalities are geographically situated in coastal areas where S. serrata are found. Crabs weighing below 300 g (~.12 cm CW) were collected from the municipalities of Sual, Labrador, San Fabian, Lingayen, Dagupan and Binmaley. These towns have mangrove areas and low saline waters where S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea thrive.
  • Conference paper

    Effect of feed binder on water stability and digestibility of formulated feed for the mud crab Scylla serrata 

    MR Catacutan - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The binding capacity of six natural and eight synthetic feed binders were tested in a basal diet formulated for the mud crab. Incorporation levels of natural binders ranged from 1 to 25% while those of synthetic binders ranged from 0.1 to 5% and these were tested for pellet stability in seawater by a) 10-min immersion, and b) at different time intervals. Pellets with synthetic binders were more water-stable than pellets with natural binders. Three synthetic binders and natural binders (glutinous rice starch and carrageenan + CMC) showed best results. The Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC) of crude protein (ADCCP) and crude fat (ADCCFt) of the basal diet were determined when selected feed binders were included in the formulation. These were determined by using an inert indicator, chromic oxide. Results showed that the ADCCP and ADCCFt of the basal diet were not similar when different binders were used, and these differences ranged from 3 to 7%. Carrageenan combined with a synthetic binder improved ADCCP and CDCCFt values.
  • Conference paper

    Nursery culture of mud crab Scylla serrata using different feeding rates 

    VR Alava, JD Sumile & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The effect of different feeding rates on the production and profitability of Phases 1 and 2 (3-week each) nursery culture of hatchery-produced crab Scylla serrata was determined. Minced mussel meat and formulated diet (at a ratio of 30:70) were fed to crabs. The crabs were stocked randomly in 12-m2 net cages installed in the nursery earthen pond at stocking densities of 50 m-2 for Phase 1 and 10 m-2 for Phase 2. Crabs were fed three times daily at 0830, 1300 and 1630h h. In Phase 1, feed conversion ratio (FCR) at a feeding rate of 100% of initial crab biomass day-1 for the entire three weeks was the lowest (p<0.05) while survival, body weight (BW), carapace width (CW) and carapace length (CL) were not different (p>0.05) among crabs given different feeding rates. For Phase 2, the feeding rate of 40-30-20% of crab biomass day-1 (week 1-2-3) resulted in lowest (p<0.05) FCR that was not significantly different from FCRs of crabs fed 50-40-30% and 60-50-40% of BW. Crab BW, CW and CL were not different (p>0.05) among feeding rate treatments. Profitability was better when feeding rate used was 100% of initial crab biomass day-1 for the entire Phase 1 or 100-50-40% of crab biomass day-1 (for week 1-2-3). A feeding rate of 50-40-30 % of crab biomass day-1 (week 1-2-3) was more profitable in Phase 2.
  • Conference paper

    Mangroves as mud crab habitats 

    JH Primavera - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper reports the use of mangroves by Scylla species both as wild and culture habitats. Based on published literature, natural mangrove crab populations are described in terms of population density, dispersal and movement within and outside mangroves, crab burrows and associated mangrove species. Strategies for Scylla conservation depend on the kind of mangrove habitat - (mangrove) restoration for open fringing mangroves where crab recruitment and abundance are determined by habitat availability vs stock enhancement in closed basin mangroves with restricted recruitment and limited movement of crabs.

    Mangrove crabs are also reared in monoculture in mangrove cages and pens, or in polyculture with milkfish in extensive ponds (where mangroves used to thrive). The paper describes a SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department study to evaluate the effects of mud crab net pen systems on mangrove macroflora, and the replacement of dietary trash fish with low-cost pellets. Results showed that incomplete, low-cost pellets can replace fish biomass requirement in mud crab diets, but that crab presence resulted in fewer mangrove seedlings and saplings. Economic analysis showed the viability of crab culture in mangrove pens using a combination of fish biomass and pellets to reduce the requirement for (low-value) fish, which is a food item of poor coastal communities.
  • Conference paper

    Overview of the mud crab industry in the Philippines 

    ET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mud crab farming has long been established in the Philippines and the country is the second top producer in the world. Except for Scylla paramamosain, the three other species, S. serrata, S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea are commonly found in the country, but S. serrata is the preferred species for farming. Crab seeds for farming are mainly from the wild and in recent years, a small percentage from the hatchery. Due to the apparent decline of the wild crab stocks, provincial and municipal ordinances have been issued by a number of Local Government Units (LGUs) along with the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) to conserve and manage the remaining resources. From the hatchery, megalopa or crab instars are grown in net cages installed in the nursery pond. Mud crab farming engages mostly in long-term grow-out culture of juvenile crabs to market size for 3-5 months, short-term fattening of lean crabs for 15-45 days, and recently, soft-shell crab production. Polyculture of juvenile crabs to market size with one to three other commodities in earthen brackishwater ponds is usually practiced. Mud crabs for soft-shell crab production are mainly from the wild, while SEAFDEC/AQD demonstrates the use of hatchery-produced juvenile mud crabs as seedstock.

    Refinement is continuously being done to improve the economic viability of producing crabs, although basic technologies have been developed for all phases of culture (hatchery, nursery, grow-out, fattening and soft shell crab production). The major issues facing the industry are the lack of seedstock, difficulty of zoea 5 to molt to megalopa stage, cannibalism particularly at the nursery phase, species identification at the juvenile stage, use of fish as aquafeed, diseases, effects of climate change and quality of crabs at postharvest. In 2012, the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) started funding projects under the National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program (NMCSTP) to address these issues. The major aim of the Program was to improve the production, profitability and sustainability of crab farming. SEAFDEC/AQD leads in capacity building with focus on the sustainability of the mud crab industry. Various collaborations and research studies on mud crab culture enabled SEAFDEC/AQD to package mud crab technologies, conduct local and international training courses and on-site technology demonstrations, and publish extension manuals and scientific publications since the mid1990s. Research and Development activities have been translated into improved production. With the recent developments and refinements of technologies, it is expected that the Philippines will increase its production by 25-50% in the next 5 years.
  • Conference paper

    Philippine National Standard for Live Mud Crabs: establishing food safety and quality requirements 

    MF Matubang, TS Palomares, JP Peralta, ET Quinitio, RJ Ragaza, JV Alejo, PB Regazpi, CE Romero, HA Montoya, JG Trinidad & KKA Roscom - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) of the Department of Agriculture (DA), in collaboration with the relevant government and research agencies, academe and industry organization, is currently developing the Philippine National Standard (PNS) for live mangrove crabs (also known as mud crabs). This PNS defines the food safety and quality requirements for live mangrove crabs in order to ensure consumers&rsquo; health and make the product globally competitive. The process in the development of standards include review of the existing requirements of local and foreign markets and internationally recognized standards, creation of the Technical Working Group, initial drafting of the PNS, conduct of public consultations in major production areas, finalization of the draft for the PNS, notification to the World Trade Organization and approval of the DA Secretary.

    The PNS for live mangrove crabs specifies the scope of the standard, product description, essential composition and quality factors, hygiene, handling, labeling requirements, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives, and the requirements for product lot acceptance.
  • Conference paper

    Unified provincial fisheries law enforcement of ordinance of Camarines Norte focusing on mud crab 

    EA Estanislao - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Due to overfishing and widespread coastal habitat degradation, the Province of Camarines Norte passed a provincial fisheries law enforcement known as the Unified Provincial Fisheries Law Enforcement Ordinance of Camarines Norte (UPFLEON) (P.O. 50-10). Given emphasis in the paper is the banning in the collection and possession of less than 1.0 cm juvenile crabs.
  • Conference paper

    Mud crab marketing practices 

    AG Decembrana - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Presented in the article is the mud crab (Scylla spp.) marketing practices in the province of Capiz. It is one of the major producers of mud crab in brackishwater ponds in the country. Hence, several trading centers or buying stations are found in this province. In Pontevedra, Capiz alone, there are more than 20 buying stations. The crabs from ponds coming from Aklan, Iloilo and within Capiz are brought to the buying stations almost daily. There are 5 kinds of market in the mud crab trading business such as, households, local markets/restaurants, traders/buying, exporters, and importers. Methods in classifying and packing of crabs are also discussed.
  • Conference paper

    Development of protocol for the production of hatchery-reared mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles for soft-shell crab farming 

    ET Quinitio, GX Libunao & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Development of economically viable techniques for growing hatchery-reared juvenile crabs to suitable sizes will address the problem on the source of seed stocks for soft-shell crab farming. This paper reports the production of hatchery-reared mud crab Scylla serrata from juveniles in the nursery to 73-106 g body weight (BW) crabs in the grow-out pond for the individual system soft-shell crab farming. Likewise, the performance of hatchery-reared S. serrata, and wild S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea juveniles was determined in the soft-shell crab production set-up.

    The BW increased from 1.8-1.9 g to 78-113.7 g when stocked at 0.5 ind m-2 and from 1.6-2.3 g to 73-106.7 g at 1.0 ind m-2 after 75 days. Growth rates at both stocking densities were comparable. However, survival was significantly higher (P<0.05) in lower (63.6~c1.01%) than in higher (35.6~c3.34%) stocking density. Male S. serrata (46.0 ~c 1.75%) had significantly higher BW increase than females (39.4 ~c 2.05%). Crabs stocked at sizes of 51-60 g showed significantly greater percent increase in BW (43.26~c 0.98%) compared with those at 61-70 g (40.98~c1.33%), 71-80 g (38.55~c 1.04%), 81-90 g (36.34 ~c 1.27%) and 91-100 g (38.52 ~c 1.67%). Among the three species, hatchery-reared S. serrata (42.14 ~c 1.34%) had significantly higher mean percent BW increase compared with S. olivacea (38.23 ~c 0.49%) and S. tranquebarica (36.16 ~c 0.78%). S. serrata had significantly shorter mean culture period (24.11 ~c 0.95 days) than S. tranquebarica (28.48 ~c 0.54 days) and S. olivacea (28.75 ~c 0.34 days).
  • Conference paper

    Strategies to reduce disease incidence in mud crab culture 

    EC Amar, MD Somera, SB Madero, EA Tendencia & JP Faisan Jr. - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mud crab hatchery suffers from low survival due to susceptibility to bacterial infection in the early larval stages among many causes. Despite food safety issues, antibiotics continue to be used in the absence of effective alternatives. In this study, screening of plant extracts was conducted to determine their suitability as antimicrobial agents against pathogens causing low survival in the hatchery. In addition, potential probionts were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of mud crab, and water and sediments of mud crab grow-out ponds.

    Crude ethanolic extracts from various terrestrial and mangrove trees were tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity and toxicity to mud crab zoea and megalopa. In addition, the in vivo antimicrobial efficacies of the selected extracts were tested by oral administration followed by experimental challenge with Vibrio harveryi. On the other hand, the putative probionts, were tested for pathogenicity against mud crab zoea and megalopa and quorum sensing inhibition activity against V. harveyi. Finally the extracts and probionts were tested for their efficacy in simulated hatchery and grow-out trials.

    Results showed that extracts of Terminalia cattapa and the potential probiont Bacillus subtilis G100R11 showed antimicrobial and probiotic activity in in vitro and in vivo tests. In simulated hatchery trials, T. cattapa administration successfully produced crab instar with a survival of 1.3-1.8% in trials 1 and 2 comparable to antibiotic control. B. subtilis produced crab instar with survival of 0.8-1.0% in trials 1 and 2, better than the commercial probiotic with 0-0.13% survival. Using T. cattapa and B. subtilis, survival was above 30% until zoea 5 but suddenly dropped below 5% during metamorphosis to megalopa where high incidence of incomplete molting was observed. If difficulty affecting the molting process is addressed, high survival from zoea to megalopa and crab instar will be achievable.

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