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  • Conference paper

    Management strategies for grow-out culture of mud crab 

    JG Genodepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    There is an increasing interest in mud crab farming because of the growing demand for mud crab in domestic and international markets. Different methods for rearing crabs in ponds, pens and cages have evolved through several years of research and experiences of farmers. Mud crabs are cultured in brackishwater earthen ponds and pens in mangroves. Fattening of lean crabs is also integrated with the grow-out culture system. Cannibalism is one of the major factors affecting the survival of crabs in growout ponds and pens. Hence, various strategies are recommended to reduce cannibalism such as stocking density of less than 2,000 crabs ha-1, provision of suitable shelters, sufficient quantity of natural food and formulated feeds that are evenly distributed in the pond or pen. Feeding rate used in the pen is adjusted to avoid excess feeds that can attract rats and other land animals that can damage the enclosures. Selective harvesting is normally practiced since mud crabs do not grow or get fattened at the same time even if they belong to the same batch.
  • Conference paper

    Morphological deformities in mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles exposed to antibiotics during the larval stage 

    GS Pates Jr., ET Quinitio, GF Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The effects of antibiotics on the survival, growth and external deformities of mud crab Scylla serrata larvae and juveniles were determined. Zoeae were exposed to 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 mgL-1 oxytetracycline (OTC) and 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mgL-1 furazolidone (furan) until the late megalopa in the first and second experiments. The treatments that gave the best results in the first and second experiments were conducted simultaneously in the third experiment. The surviving crab instar from each replicate were grown in nursery tanks for one month.

    Significantly higher survival and faster growth rate of Z5 were attained when 3 and 6 mgL-1 OTC or 0.5 and 1 mgL-1 furan were used. Morphological deformities observed in zoea 5 were bent dorsal, rostral and furcal spines. Percentage occurrence of morphological deformities was similar in all treatments. Significantly (P<0.05) higher survival and faster growth were attained among Z5 in the treatments using 3 mgL-1 OTC and 0.5 mL-1 furan in the third experiment. Morphological deformities observed in juveniles were fused frontal and lateral spines, asymmetrical and depressed tip of abdominal flap and gap between sternites. High percentage of deformities was observed in juveniles that were previously exposed to 6 mgL-1 OTC or 1.0 mgL-1 furan. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) observed in the survival of juveniles in both treatments of OTC and furan. However, growth was significantly (P<0.05) faster in lower concentrations of the two antibiotics.

    The study shows the apparent negative effects of antibiotics and highlights the need to eliminate or find alternatives, thereby preventing possible harm to the organisms and the environment.
  • Conference paper

    Induction of molting in hatchery-reared mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles through temperature manipulation or autotomy 

    JJDC Huervana - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The effects of water temperature and autotomy of chelipeds on growth, survival and molting of mud crab, Scylla serrata, juveniles were investigated under laboratory conditions in separate experiments. Hatchery-produced crabs at the intermolt stage with 2.0-2.3 cm carapace width and 1.7-2.2 g body weight were either exposed to temperature levels of 29, 32 and 35°C and ambient temperature of 24-31°C or subjected to autotomy (voluntary removal of one or two chelipeds). The crabs were allowed to molt twice prior to termination.

    All crabs held at 35°C had 100% mortality due to incomplete molting during the first molt. The mean survival of crabs upon termination was 58, 64 and 50% for ambient temperature, 29 and 32°C, respectively. Specific growth rate (SGR) of crabs in the ambient (2.83 ± 0.12%) and 29°C (3.02 ± 0.15%) were comparable but significantly lower than (P<0.01) those at 32°C (3.85 ± 0.28%). The molt interval of crabs was significantly shorter in treatments with constant water temperature (29°C: 32 ± 0.80 days, 32°C: 28 ± 1.11 days) compared to ambient temperature (39 ± 0.93 days).

    The survival of crabs with intact chelipeds (51.17 ± 3.56%) was comparable to those with one (50.55 ± 2.36%) or two (43.41 ± 1.59%) autotomized chelipeds. Juveniles with intact (5.80 ± 0.47%) or one autotomized cheliped (5.45 ± 0.30%) had a significantly higher SGR than crabs with both chelipeds autotomized (4.20 ± 0.52%) in the first molt. On the second molt, however, high SGR was observed in crabs with two chelipeds autotomized. The molt interval was significantly shorter in the autotomized crabs (one cheliped: 28 ± 1.66 days; two chelipeds: 23 ± 0.63 days) compared to those with intact chelipeds (36 ± 1.52 days). The results suggest that optimum water temperature for rearing S. serrata juveniles ranges from 29 to 32°C. Likewise, autotomy of one cheliped can promote molting without adversely affecting the growth and survival of the juveniles.
  • Conference paper

    Initiatives on mud crab culture at the Palawan Aquaculture Corporation 

    E Tech, C Emboltorio, D Galila, C Ogsimer & K Lim - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mud crab (Scylla spp) has long been a prime commodity in both local and global market and is regarded as one of the important high-value crustacean species produced in the Philippines. Decades ago, its culture basically relied on the availability of wild seedstock collected and grown to marketable size, or on wild lean adult crabs that were fattened for a short period.

    Developments and refinements in the hatchery and nursery techniques paved the way to bringing up culture activities to commercial levels. The Palawan Aquaculture Corporation embarked on mud crab culture in the mid 2014 where initial trials started. Collaboration with SEAFDEC/AQD was later forged bringing forth improvements in the hatchery, nursery and grow-out culture. Hatchery-reared juvenile crabs are now being sold.
  • Conference paper

    Overview of the mud crab industry in the Philippines 

    ET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mud crab farming has long been established in the Philippines and the country is the second top producer in the world. Except for Scylla paramamosain, the three other species, S. serrata, S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea are commonly found in the country, but S. serrata is the preferred species for farming. Crab seeds for farming are mainly from the wild and in recent years, a small percentage from the hatchery. Due to the apparent decline of the wild crab stocks, provincial and municipal ordinances have been issued by a number of Local Government Units (LGUs) along with the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) to conserve and manage the remaining resources. From the hatchery, megalopa or crab instars are grown in net cages installed in the nursery pond. Mud crab farming engages mostly in long-term grow-out culture of juvenile crabs to market size for 3-5 months, short-term fattening of lean crabs for 15-45 days, and recently, soft-shell crab production. Polyculture of juvenile crabs to market size with one to three other commodities in earthen brackishwater ponds is usually practiced. Mud crabs for soft-shell crab production are mainly from the wild, while SEAFDEC/AQD demonstrates the use of hatchery-produced juvenile mud crabs as seedstock.

    Refinement is continuously being done to improve the economic viability of producing crabs, although basic technologies have been developed for all phases of culture (hatchery, nursery, grow-out, fattening and soft shell crab production). The major issues facing the industry are the lack of seedstock, difficulty of zoea 5 to molt to megalopa stage, cannibalism particularly at the nursery phase, species identification at the juvenile stage, use of fish as aquafeed, diseases, effects of climate change and quality of crabs at postharvest. In 2012, the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) started funding projects under the National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program (NMCSTP) to address these issues. The major aim of the Program was to improve the production, profitability and sustainability of crab farming. SEAFDEC/AQD leads in capacity building with focus on the sustainability of the mud crab industry. Various collaborations and research studies on mud crab culture enabled SEAFDEC/AQD to package mud crab technologies, conduct local and international training courses and on-site technology demonstrations, and publish extension manuals and scientific publications since the mid1990s. Research and Development activities have been translated into improved production. With the recent developments and refinements of technologies, it is expected that the Philippines will increase its production by 25-50% in the next 5 years.
  • Conference paper

    Unified provincial fisheries law enforcement of ordinance of Camarines Norte focusing on mud crab 

    EA Estanislao - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Due to overfishing and widespread coastal habitat degradation, the Province of Camarines Norte passed a provincial fisheries law enforcement known as the Unified Provincial Fisheries Law Enforcement Ordinance of Camarines Norte (UPFLEON) (P.O. 50-10). Given emphasis in the paper is the banning in the collection and possession of less than 1.0 cm juvenile crabs.
  • Conference paper

    Mangroves as mud crab habitats 

    JH Primavera - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper reports the use of mangroves by Scylla species both as wild and culture habitats. Based on published literature, natural mangrove crab populations are described in terms of population density, dispersal and movement within and outside mangroves, crab burrows and associated mangrove species. Strategies for Scylla conservation depend on the kind of mangrove habitat - (mangrove) restoration for open fringing mangroves where crab recruitment and abundance are determined by habitat availability vs stock enhancement in closed basin mangroves with restricted recruitment and limited movement of crabs.

    Mangrove crabs are also reared in monoculture in mangrove cages and pens, or in polyculture with milkfish in extensive ponds (where mangroves used to thrive). The paper describes a SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department study to evaluate the effects of mud crab net pen systems on mangrove macroflora, and the replacement of dietary trash fish with low-cost pellets. Results showed that incomplete, low-cost pellets can replace fish biomass requirement in mud crab diets, but that crab presence resulted in fewer mangrove seedlings and saplings. Economic analysis showed the viability of crab culture in mangrove pens using a combination of fish biomass and pellets to reduce the requirement for (low-value) fish, which is a food item of poor coastal communities.
  • Conference paper

    Effect of feed binder on water stability and digestibility of formulated feed for the mud crab Scylla serrata 

    MR Catacutan - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The binding capacity of six natural and eight synthetic feed binders were tested in a basal diet formulated for the mud crab. Incorporation levels of natural binders ranged from 1 to 25% while those of synthetic binders ranged from 0.1 to 5% and these were tested for pellet stability in seawater by a) 10-min immersion, and b) at different time intervals. Pellets with synthetic binders were more water-stable than pellets with natural binders. Three synthetic binders and natural binders (glutinous rice starch and carrageenan + CMC) showed best results. The Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC) of crude protein (ADCCP) and crude fat (ADCCFt) of the basal diet were determined when selected feed binders were included in the formulation. These were determined by using an inert indicator, chromic oxide. Results showed that the ADCCP and ADCCFt of the basal diet were not similar when different binders were used, and these differences ranged from 3 to 7%. Carrageenan combined with a synthetic binder improved ADCCP and CDCCFt values.
  • Conference paper

    Nursery culture of mud crab Scylla serrata using different feeding rates 

    VR Alava, JD Sumile & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The effect of different feeding rates on the production and profitability of Phases 1 and 2 (3-week each) nursery culture of hatchery-produced crab Scylla serrata was determined. Minced mussel meat and formulated diet (at a ratio of 30:70) were fed to crabs. The crabs were stocked randomly in 12-m2 net cages installed in the nursery earthen pond at stocking densities of 50 m-2 for Phase 1 and 10 m-2 for Phase 2. Crabs were fed three times daily at 0830, 1300 and 1630h h. In Phase 1, feed conversion ratio (FCR) at a feeding rate of 100% of initial crab biomass day-1 for the entire three weeks was the lowest (p<0.05) while survival, body weight (BW), carapace width (CW) and carapace length (CL) were not different (p>0.05) among crabs given different feeding rates. For Phase 2, the feeding rate of 40-30-20% of crab biomass day-1 (week 1-2-3) resulted in lowest (p<0.05) FCR that was not significantly different from FCRs of crabs fed 50-40-30% and 60-50-40% of BW. Crab BW, CW and CL were not different (p>0.05) among feeding rate treatments. Profitability was better when feeding rate used was 100% of initial crab biomass day-1 for the entire Phase 1 or 100-50-40% of crab biomass day-1 (for week 1-2-3). A feeding rate of 50-40-30 % of crab biomass day-1 (week 1-2-3) was more profitable in Phase 2.
  • Conference paper

    Nursery culture of mud crab, Scylla serrata, using different ratios of natural food to formulated feed 

    VR Alava, JD Sumile & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The effect of feeding different ratios of natural food to formulated feed on the production and profitability of Phases 1 and 2 of nursery culture (3 weeks per phase) of hatchery-produced crab Scylla serrata was investigated. The feeds consisted of: mussel meat (M) alone, formulated diet (FD) alone, and their combination at M:FD ratios of 5 : 95, 10 : 90, 15 : 85, 20 : 80, 25 : 75 and 30 : 70. The crabs were stocked randomly in 12-m2 net cages installed in the nursery pond at stocking density of 50 m-2 for Phase 1 and 10 m-2 for Phase 2. Crabs were fed three times daily at 0830, 1300 and 1630 h. Results showed that in both phases, the survival rate, body weight, carapace width, and feed conversion ratio of crabs fed M, FD, and combination at different ratios were not significantly different (p>0.05). Profitability was better in 15 M:85 FD or 20 M :80 FD (Phase 1) and 30 M:70 FD ratio (Phase 2). The use of complete formulated diet as feed for crabs reduced the reliance on wet natural food.
  • Conference paper

    Mangrove structure and mud crab population in northern Samar 

    ET Quinitio, EB Vista, RC Vista & MJH Lebata-Ramos - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This study assessed the mangrove community structure, relative seasonal abundance of all size classes of crabs (catch per unit effort or CPUE) and percent composition of the catch in two collection grounds in Pambujan and Rosario, Northern Samar using cylindrical bamboo traps and lift nets. Mangroves in Pambujan was dominated by Avicennia marina and A. alba. The initial total count of mangrove trees (67 stems ha-1) was slightly higher compared with the final count (61 stems ha-1). On the other hand, mangroves in Rosario was dominated by Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa. The total count of mangrove trees was higher in the initial (108 stems ha-1) compared with the final (46 stems ha-1). However, saplings and seedlings increased in both sites after 18 months. Mean CPUE ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 crabs using cylindrical bamboo traps in the monthly spring tide sampling for 19 months in Pambujan. High mean CPUE was recorded in February and August 2008. Mean CPUE ranged from 0.04 to 0.41 crabs using lift nets in the monthly spring tide sampling. The highest mean CPUE was noted in August. The initial and final CPUE were comparable. In Rosario, mean CPUE ranged from 0.3 to 1.78 crabs monthly caught in cylindrical bamboo traps and from 0.04 to 0.77 crabs in lift nets. In general, the number of crabs caught in both traps was higher in Rosario than in Pambujan. Mud crab ranged from 2.02-72.2% of the monthly total catch in lift nets in Pambujan. Other species of crabs ranging from 27.78 to 86.36% were the dominant catch in several months. In Rosario, mud crab ranged from 12.5 to 82.35% of the monthly total catch. The catch composition of the cylindrical bamboo traps was more varied compared with lift nets in both sites. The decrease in the population of mud crabs may also be associated with the decrease in mangrove trees. With the continuous cutting of trees and regular extraction of all sizes of mud crabs, the industry may no longer become sustainable. This paper is the first to be done on the assessment of the mud crab population in Northern Samar and the information gathered can be used as basis for the development and improvement of the existing fisheries legislation for the conservation and management of the remaining wild resources.
  • Conference paper

    Strategies to reduce disease incidence in mud crab culture 

    EC Amar, MD Somera, SB Madero, EA Tendencia & JP Faisan Jr. - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mud crab hatchery suffers from low survival due to susceptibility to bacterial infection in the early larval stages among many causes. Despite food safety issues, antibiotics continue to be used in the absence of effective alternatives. In this study, screening of plant extracts was conducted to determine their suitability as antimicrobial agents against pathogens causing low survival in the hatchery. In addition, potential probionts were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of mud crab, and water and sediments of mud crab grow-out ponds.

    Crude ethanolic extracts from various terrestrial and mangrove trees were tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity and toxicity to mud crab zoea and megalopa. In addition, the in vivo antimicrobial efficacies of the selected extracts were tested by oral administration followed by experimental challenge with Vibrio harveryi. On the other hand, the putative probionts, were tested for pathogenicity against mud crab zoea and megalopa and quorum sensing inhibition activity against V. harveyi. Finally the extracts and probionts were tested for their efficacy in simulated hatchery and grow-out trials.

    Results showed that extracts of Terminalia cattapa and the potential probiont Bacillus subtilis G100R11 showed antimicrobial and probiotic activity in in vitro and in vivo tests. In simulated hatchery trials, T. cattapa administration successfully produced crab instar with a survival of 1.3-1.8% in trials 1 and 2 comparable to antibiotic control. B. subtilis produced crab instar with survival of 0.8-1.0% in trials 1 and 2, better than the commercial probiotic with 0-0.13% survival. Using T. cattapa and B. subtilis, survival was above 30% until zoea 5 but suddenly dropped below 5% during metamorphosis to megalopa where high incidence of incomplete molting was observed. If difficulty affecting the molting process is addressed, high survival from zoea to megalopa and crab instar will be achievable.
  • Conference paper

    Pilot scale production of pellets suitable for mud crab Scylla serrata 

    RM Coloso, MR Catacutan, JP Peralta, JG Genodepa, K Duno & R Gardoce - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Studies were conducted towards the pilot scale production of stable and nutritionally adequate pellets suitable for mud crab Scylla serrata to help in efforts to increase mud crab production in the Philippines. Preliminary studies showed that mud crabs preferred pellets which were spherical or cylindrical and contained marine based attractants. Two practical diets were formulated and prepared in the Pilot Feed Mill of SEAFDEC/AQD. The extruded diets, along with a commercial mud crab grow-out diet, were subjected to proximate and Ca/P analyses as well as cholesterol analysis and water stability tests. The diets were fed to crabs in a controlled laboratory experiment using fiberglass tanks with flow-through, aerated seawater, and monitored from initial molt (M0) up to the second molt (M2). Tests revealed that the crabs fed Diet 1 (CP 48.28 %, CF 7.74 %, Ca 5.23%, P 12.93 %, cholesterol 0.173 %) showed the highest growth and better survival than those fed Diet 2 or commercial diet. Crabs fed Diet 1 took a shorter time to attain two molt cycles from M0. Survival was 70% after M2. Diet 1 was water stable within two hours. Abnormalities were observed including absent swimming legs or chelae, exposed gills, sores on exoskeleton, incomplete molting, or soft exoskeleton, but none that could be directly attributed to a specific treatment. Incomplete molting and slow hardening of the exoskeleton in crabs that accounted for the mortalities could be due to the low cholesterol levels in the diets especially in the commercial diet which had the lowest cholesterol level. Cholesterol supplementation of the artificial diet would be needed to improve molting success and survival of mud crabs in grow-out culture. The results of these experiments will be used to formulate a cost-effective grow-out diet for mud crab (supported by DOST-PCAARRD Grant in Aid).
  • Conference paper

    Nursery and grow-out feeding management of mud crab farmers in the Philippines: Santeh experience 

    JRA Gabiota - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mud crab (Scylla serrata) farming has been one of the means of livelihood of many Filipino farmers in coastal areas, specifically in Southern Luzon and Visayas. Nursery and grow-out operations in these areas vary in terms of their feeding management and techniques for a better yield. Farmers in Bicol region, specifically Sorsogon which is one of the sources of wild crablets in the country, are presently using pelleted feeds for nursing different crab sizes. On the other hand, farmers in Quezon, Bataan, Masbate, Negros and Capiz are growing crabs to marketable size for domestic and export markets.

    It was noted that there are still farmers in some areas that use low value fish for feeding crabs resulting in the deterioration of the pond bottom and water environment. On the other hand, pelleted feeds serve as an alternative feed that addresses the problem of the declining supply of trash fish, corn, mussel and snails. The price of trash fish has increased significantly due to its unavailability in several areas. In addition, pollution of the water environment and fluctuations in the water parameters for crabs due to improper pond preparation, pollution and climate change have added stress to the crabs.
  • Conference paper

    Biological evaluation of existing feed formulations for the grow-out culture of the mud crab, Scylla serrata 

    MR Catacutan - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This study was conducted to identify a formulated pelleted feed for the grow-out culture of the mud crab. A commercial crab feed (CCF) was evaluated together with fish by-catch (FBC) and three test diets (formulated and pelleted) of similar dietary energy (1723 MJ/Kg diet) based on published works. The test diets contained 48% (D-1), 43% (D-2), and 38% (D-3) crude protein (CP), respectively. All the five dietary treatments were fed to crablets (5 to 6 g body weight) that were individually stocked in 60-L tanks. Each dietary treatment was fed to six crabs. Crustaceans grow by molting which is not simultaneous, hence, each crab was monitored daily. After the third molt (M3) survival rates in D-1, D-2 and D-3 ranged from 33%-66% compared with only 16% in FBC, and 0% in CCF where no crab survived to molt for the second time (M2). Nutrients in FBC may not be sufficient to sustain growth and survival, while water stable CCF may lack a feed attractant. Diets D-1, D-2, and D-3 were evaluated in another feeding experiment to identify the basal diet for the crab. All crabs molted until M3 and no significant differences were noted on growth performance between treatments. However, D-1 (48% CP) was identified as the basal diet due to better numerical values observed in terms of feed conversion ratios and specific growth rates.
  • Conference paper

    Trading of juvenile crabs and grow-out culture in Capiz 

    GJ Panaguiton - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The article presents the trade of juvenile crabs in the Province of Capiz, Philippines. Moreover grow-out culture was also presented. Likewise, common problems encountered in the trade, and culture of the crabs was discussed.
  • Conference paper

    Diseases affecting wild and farmed mud crab in the Philippines 

    EA Tendencia & MVC Cabilitasan - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Mortalities due to cannibalism and diseases have been reported as major problems in the grow-out phase of mud crab production. This study aimed to identify and describe diseases affecting farmed and wild mud crab (mangrove crab) including predisposing, risk and protective factors, and possible prevention and control measures. A total of 767 wild and farmed mud crab samples were collected. External examination showed abnormalities such as short abdominal flap, discoloration of the abdominal region, darker carapace, lesions on carapace, claws and legs, and presence of epibionts like algae and the barnacles Balanus sp. on the carapace. Internally, necrotic, black and brown gills, and discolored gonads were observed. Stalked barnacles, Octolasmis spp., were observed in the gills. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was detected in 14 samples sourced from farms and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in 2 wild samples. WSSV was implicated in mortality cases. Low temperature and presence of WSSV positive shrimp were identified as risk factors for WSSV infection or outbreak. Pathogenicity tests for some isolated bacteria suggested that these may cause mortality in mud crab under stressful conditions. To prevent mortality due to WSSV infection, it is recommended to avoid polyculture of mud crab with shrimp and/or other crustaceans.
  • Conference paper

    Updates on the larviculture of mud crab at SEAFDEC/AQD 

    ET Quinitio, JJDC Huervana, JC Virgula & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Although the mud crab (Scylla serrata) hatchery technology has been developed, issues such as high cost of production due to the need for additional facilities and labor for natural food culture, inconsistent survival rate at megalopa stage due to Molt Death Syndrome (MDS), and disease due to luminescent bacteria (Vibrio spp.), remain to be addressed. Refinements on the existing mud crab larviculture technology were done to address these problems.

    Poor nutrition, low water temperature and application of prophylaxis during the zoea l stage have been identified as possible causes of MDS. Six shrimp formulated diets (FD) were tested, and 3 of these proved to be suitable for mud crab larvicuture. Larval performance was compared using the 3 diets + natural food (NF, rotifers and Artemia) and NF alone as control. No significant difference was noted in the survival among the 4 treatments, although BP Nippai fed larvae had higher values. Lesser occurrence of MDS was observed in all the larvae fed FD+NF. Three mud crab larval diets with various attractants (squid, annelids, and squid + annelids) were also formulated and fed to the larvae. Results showed no significant difference among the 3 diets. The results of another experiment investigating the effects of the reduction of natural food showed that larvae fed 50% NF + 50% FD and 75%NF + 25% FD had higher survival compared to those fed 75% AD +25% NF and no NF at all. The results indicate that the larvae cannot survive with formulated diet alone. It has been observed that frequency of antibiotic application can be reduced to every 5 days if good quality mud crab larvae are used. Formalin stress test proved to be a reliable method to determine the quality of a batch of newly hatched zoeae. All prophylactic treatments are stopped when megalopae reach the benthic stage.

    To accelerate the dissemination of science-based mud crab hatchery technology to industry stakeholders, SEAFDEC/AQD entered into an agreement with private hatchery operators, State Universities and Colleges, and Local Government Units on giving assistance during initial hatchery operations. Technicians were given free training, followed by in-situ hatchery operations with assistance from SEAFDEC/AQD with the funding from PCAARRD-DOST. Crablets are now being produced by the collaborators. Increase in the production of hatchery-reared crablets will eventually reduce the dependence on wild-sourced mud crab seed stock for farming.
  • Conference paper

    Capacity building initiatives of Winrock International on mud crab culture in the Caraga Region 

    J Nobillos, D Gudahl & J Orprecio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper presents the output of the capacity building initiatives of Winrock International on Mud crab culture in the Caraga Region, Philippines. The capacity building seminar included lectures on the mud crab biology, pond preparation, nursery and grow-out culture, fattening, and soft-shell crab farming. Identification of the various crab body parts, actual pond preparation, nursery and grow-out culture of crab were demonstrated after the series of lectures.
  • Conference paper

    Mud crab production trials at the College of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Aklan State University, New Washington, Aklan 

    YH Primavera-Tirol, R de la Cruz & EB Pastrana - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Two hatchery and nursery trials have been conducted at the College of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Aklan State University (ASU) for the Multi-species Hatchery and Fishfarm Project from August to September 2014 and April to May 2015, in collaboration with the Aquaculture Department (AQD), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) under the National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program of the PCAARRD-DOST.

    Two ASU staff underwent training on Mud Crab Hatchery, Nursery and Grow-out Operations at SEAFDEC/AQD from September to October 2013. This was followed by SEAFDEC/AQD&rsquo;s provision of technical assistance during the actual hatchery and nursery operations using Scylla serrata at ASU. Survival rates of 3% and of 66-76% were recorded in the hatchery and nursery phases, respectively. The natural food consisting of rotifer and Artemia, and commercial formulated diet were fed to S. serrata larvae (zoea to megalopa). Juvenile crabs were fed formulated feeds and molluscs. Water temperature ranged from 27 to 30°C and salinity from 29 to 33 ppt in the hatchery. Initial results and insights are discussed and evaluated as guide for future hatchery and nursery protocols.

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