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  • Conference paper

    Transboundary aquatic animal diseases: History and impacts in ASEAN aquaculture 

    EM Leaño - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Aquaculture is one of the important sectors in the economy of most Asia-Pacific countries. However, majority of aquaculture farms are small-scale and most often lack the necessary facilities to comply with or are not well informed of the product standards imposed by concerned authorities, especially for international trade. Most countries in the region have a high reliance on aquatic animals as the major source of protein for their populations. In the past 20 years, farming of shrimp and fish for export has become a major employer and revenue earner for many countries in the region. Aquaculture is a major employer, contributes significantly to national economies, assists in poverty reduction, and is an important element in food security and other national development priorities. Aquaculture has developed rapidly in the region and is now a significant component in the national economies of many countries. However, recent disease events in fish and shrimp farming have indicated that preparedness and response measures are lacking, contributing to spread of disease across large areas of the countries involved.

    The growth of aquaculture in recent decades has been dependent on the international movement of aquatic animals and, in particular, the introduction of non-native species. The movement of live aquatic animals and their products has the potential to spread pathogens from one country or region to another, which may result to disease outbreaks. In shrimps as example, most major disease outbreaks were associated with the movement of live animals (broodstock, nauplii and postlarvae) when the patterns of disease spread were analyzed. Many aquatic animal diseases, once established, are often difficult to treat or to eliminate. Over the past 30 years, the Asia-Pacific region has been swept by a number of devastating diseases of aquatic animals which have caused massive economic and social losses. These include spread and outbreaks of infection with Aphanomyces invadans (EUS) in freshwater fish, viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in marine fish, viral hemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in marine and freshwater fish, and several viral diseases in shrimps such as white spot disease (WSD), white tail disease (WTD), yellow head disease (YHD) and infectious myonecrosis (IMN) among others. This demonstrates the vulnerability of the aquaculture industry as well as the wild populations to disease emergence in the region. The impacts of these diseases have been aggravated by the lack of effective preparedness and response whenever diseases emerge. Although some national, regional and international actions towards disease emergencies have paved way to disease spread prevention in recent years (e.g. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis diseases; AHPND), there are still several emerging diseases that need to be considered by aquaculture-producing countries, especially in the ASEAN, through a harmonized and effective emergency preparedness and disease response.
  • Conference paper

    Emergency preparedness and response systems for aquatic animal diseases in Malaysia 

    KB Chu, OS Ling, SH Hashim & MH Hamdan - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Department of Fisheries (DoF) Malaysia is the custodian of the Fisheries Act 1985, which serves as the main legislative source for subsidiary regulations, including aquaculture and fish health management. It has established Emergency Disease Task Force Committee for any emergency related to disease outbreak as well as standard operating procedures for massive fish kill. This committee consists of taskforce teams from federal and/or state fisheries and oversee the operations of the task force. Fisheries Biosecurity Division under DoF Malaysia holds the primary responsibility for managing the country s emergency preparedness and response system for aquatic animal diseases. As for early detection system, Fisheries Biosecurity Division has established official control and official analysis for targeted diseases listed under OIE and National Listed Diseases. Fish health monitoring programmes are conducted every six months and samples are analyzed by accredited laboratories. Quarterly and half year reports are submitted to representative offices for the health status of targeted disease. Apart from the targeted fish health monitoring program, epidemiology on common and emerging diseases are conducted by National Fish Health Research Division (NaFisH) which is the only research and development arm under DoF. Laboratories under Fisheries Biosecurity Division are responsible for organizing and coordinating surveillance programs for diseases in the OIE list while NaFisH is responsible for conducting research and development on aquatic diseases that cause high losses in industry since 2002. Currently, the DoF has four servicing laboratories under Fisheries Biosecurity Division and one NaFisH laboratory under Fisheries Research Institute for fish health diagnosis in Malaysia.
  • Conference paper

    Emergency preparedness and response system in Indonesia 

    MS Hastuti, Desrina & Maskur - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Competent Authority (CA) on aquatic animal health in Indonesia is the Directorate Aquaculture Area Development and Fish Health of the Directorate General of Aquaculture (DGA) under the Ministry of Marine Affairs. CA is supported by national reference laboratories and professional human resources that are capable of fish disease diagnosis; as well as an established network with the farmers, trading association, and relevant stakeholders which are actively involved in national meetings, conferences, socialization of emerging diseases and policy and regulation. To control transboundary fish disease at national level, the government of Indonesia has a National Strategy on Aquatic Animal Health and Environment, which was developed by FAO under project of TCP/INS/3402: 2013-2015) collaboration with DGA, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF). To strenghten the implementation of aquaculture in the country, the Indonesian Government issued President regulation Number 28 in 2017 which includes the implementation of fish health management as well as emergency response (Section VI, Article 60). To support the implementation of EPRS, Special Task Force Teams are formed by the Director General of Aquaculture.

    Stakeholders' participation is very important in the implementation of EPRS, such as a prompt report by fish farmers and extension officer to the upper level fisheries officers at district, provincial, and national level of any observed unusual mortality that indicates disease outbreaks. EPRS activities consist of emergency response on early warning (disease information, disease preventing guideline and regulation); early detection (surveillance, appointed diagnostic laboratory); and early response (collecting information, task force formation, public awareness). Standard Operational Procedures, and detection and control were done based on published scientific information available and guidelines from World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) etc. Passive and active surveillance was done on major transboundary diseases in Indonesian regions including KHV, TiLV, AHPND, WSSV, and IMNV.
  • Conference paper

    Aquatic emergency preparedness and response system in Viet Nam 

    VHT Bui, VNT Nguyen, LHT Nguyen, HT Nguyen, QH Pham, CD Vo & TN Nguyen - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Viet Nam is one of the top worldwide producers of aquaculture products which accounts for about 22 percent of total agricultural GDP of Viet Nam. Recently, diseases have become the biggest challenge for global aquaculture development therefore the Vietnamese government has paid close attention to develop an effective aquatic emergency preparedness and response system to timely deal with disease introduction and outbreaks. The Department of Animal Health (DAH), under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), which is the competent authority of aquatic animal health management. To monitor transboundary diseases (especially the OIE-listed diseases), the current Vietnamese regulations only allow import of aquatic animals and its products which are certified as disease-free by competent authority of exporting country, and export aquatic animals and its products complying with importing conditions of importing country. Regional Animal Health Offices (belong to DAH) shall carry out sampling for testing pathogens and isolation for imported aquatic animals and its products as regulated in Circular 26/2016/TT-BNNPTNT dated 30 June 2016 before granting permit to import or export. For domestic transportation of aquatic animals, provincial sub DAH is responsible for monitoring infectious pathogens to certify disease-free status of aquatic animals before issuing health certificate for movement. In addition, a reporting and response system to aquatic animal diseases was established in the country from farm level to central level (DAH). Early detection and warning of diseases is critical for disease prevention and control, thus since 2014, the DAH has implemented national surveillance programs focusing on dangerous diseases in the key farming species (brackish-water shrimps, pangasius catfish) according to Circular 04/2016/TT-BNNPTNT dated 10 May 2016 of MARD and support exportation of aquatic animals and its products complying with international regulations and importing countries based on OIE recommendations and Circular 14/2016/TT-BNNPTNT dated 2 June 2016.
  • Conference paper

    Philippines: Aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems for transboundary diseases 

    SS Somga, JR Somga, GM Quiatchon & SE Regidor - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) of the Department of Agriculture as the Competent Authority, develops and implements rules and regulations on aquatic animal health for the Philippines. It establishes the monitoring system for OIE/NACA listed aquatic animal diseases. The disease surveillance and reporting activities are being carried out by the BFAR Fish Health Laboratory of the National Fisheries Laboratory Division and its counterparts at the regional offices. BFAR Fish Health Laboratories have different levels of diagnostic and detection capabilities for aquatic animal diseases. Diagnostic services and technical assistance are rendered to farmers on aquatic animal health. Results of diagnostic services and surveillance by BFAR central and regional offices, and other laboratories (SEAFDEC/AQD-Fish Health, DA-Biotech, Negros Prawn Cooperative) are part of the country s aquatic animal disease reports to the OIE/NACA. BFAR has a Fish Health Network that responds to aquatic animal disease emergencies. It also coordinates and collaborates through networking with research agencies, academe, private sectors and other stakeholders on aquatic animal health.

    The Fisheries Inspection and Quarantine Division implements the policies on biosecurity, quarantine and health certification for trade and transboundary movement of aquatic animals. It is also responsible for risk analysis on the importation of fish and fishery/aquatic products. Other regulatory requirements for in-country movement include local transport permit for fish and fishery/aquatic products for traceability. Importers and exporters are also registered by BFAR to ensure compliance to sanitary and food safety measures and requirements. BFAR is continuously strengthening its technical capacity, human resources, policies and regulations for a more efficient implementation of aquatic animal health services that includes response to transboundary disease emergencies of aquatic animals.
  • Conference paper

    FAO TCP/INT/3501: Emergency preparedness and response systems capacity and performance self-assessment survey 

    FAO - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The purpose of this survey is to obtain information on national capacity and the agencies mandated to implement emergency preparedness and response systems with respect to aquatic animal diseases. The results of this survey will help guide regional and national strategic planning with respect to improving aquatic EPR systems, thereby improving aquatic animal health more broadly and assuring adequate and rational support services to achieve sustainable aquaculture development.

    This FAO questionnaire on aquatic EPR system capacity and performance is a country level self-assessment survey with four sections: (1) general administration, (2) operational components, (3) support systems and (4) additional information.
  • Conference paper

    Emergency response to emerging disease: AHPND in shrimp 

    K Sritunyalucksana, TW Flegel, P Sithigorngul & P Wangman - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Outbreaks of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) have caused great economic losses to many shrimp producing countries in Asia since its first appearance in 2009. The causative agent was first reported in 2013 as specific isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND) that were later found to harbor a plasmid (pVA) encoding the Pir-like binary toxin genes PirvpA and PirvpB. More recent information indicates that pVA plasmid and variants occur in many Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotypes and also in other Vibrio species such as V. campbellii, V. harveyi and V. owensii. Information on such genomic and proteomic studies of different VPAHPND isolates from different countries are reviewed. A cohort study carried out in Thailand in 2014 indicated that AHPND outbreaks account for only a portion of the disease outbreaks reported by shrimp farmers as outbreaks of early mortality syndrome (EMS). It is urgent that the etiology of the other EMS-associated mortalities be investigated and not be overlooked. It is recommended that a regional research network and surveillance program for newly-emerging or re-emerging pathogens be established to speed up the process of diagnosis and the implementation of coordinated control measures and to avoid a repeat of the EMS/AHPND scenario.
  • Conference paper

    Fish disease control in Japan 

    S Miwa - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The regulatory authority responsible for the control of aquatic animal diseases in Japan is the Animal Products Safety Division, Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF). The ministry (Animal Products Safety Division) specifies certain diseases and their host species that are subjects for import quarantine on the basis of the law called Fisheries Resources Protection Act. The MAFF also implements risk control measures for the same diseases within Japan on the basis of another law, Fish Farming Production Maintaining Act. Currently, 24 such diseases are listed. For disease control within Japan, the MAFF issues Guideline for the Control of Aquatic Animal Diseases, which states the roles of different stakeholders, appropriate actions that are to be taken on the occurrences of specified or other diseases, fish health guidelines for fish farmers, or diagnostic methods for specified diseases, etc. Local prefectural governments in Japan are required to place personnel who work on fish health issues at the prefectural fisheries research laboratories. These people usually inspect fish farms, observe cultured aquatic animals, supervise the use of antibiotics or vaccines, and guide fish farmers for disease control. Disease diagnosis for aquatic animals is usually conducted by these local fisheries research labs for free. The Japan Fisheries Resource Conservation Association provides a comprehensive training course on fish diseases including laws or hands-on trainings for the staff of prefectural fisheries research laboratories. The JFRCA also give local fish health personnel the qualification as the fish health expert, if the person passes the examination conducted after the training course. Primary diagnosis for specified diseases is conducted by local fisheries laboratories. On the occurrence of the diseases that are suspected to be one of the specified diseases or OIE listed diseases that have not been reported in Japan, the samples are sent to the National Research Institute of Aquaculture (NRIA) where confirmatory diagnosis is made. When such diseases are confirmed, it is reported to the MAFF (or to the OIE through MAFF). For specified diseases, Fish Farming Production Maintaining Act enables local governments to implement necessary measures to prevent the disease from spreading, including issuing orders such as to stop the transfer of the animals to other watersheds, to destroy animals, or to disinfect the facilities. When an unknown disease is encountered by a prefectural fisheries research laboratory, the NRIA is requested to conduct diagnosis. The NRIA develops diagnostic methods for new diseases and disseminate the techniques to local fisheries research laboratories. The NRIA provide positive control materials for disease diagnosis, hands-on trainings of specific subjects concerning diagnostic techniques, or proficiency tests for the fish health personnel of the local fisheries research laboratories.
  • Conference paper

    OIE international standards on aquatic animals 

    J Wang - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is the intergovernmental organisation responsible for improving animal health worldwide. It is recognised as a reference organisation by the World Trade Organization (WTO) to develop international standards for animal health and zoonoses; as of May 2018, it counts a total of 182 Members.

    As the global leader for animal health and welfare standards, the OIE plays an influential role in the prevention, control and information sharing of animal diseases including aquatic animal diseases. The objectives of OIE are to: (1) Ensure transparency in the global animal disease situation; (2) Collect, analyse and disseminate veterinary scientific information; (3) Encourage international solidarity in the control of animal diseases; (4) Safeguard World trade by publishing health standards for international, trade in animals and animal products; (5) Improve the legal framework and resources, national veterinary services and aquatic animal health services; and (6) to provide a better guarantee of food of animal origin and to promote animal welfare.

    As an international standard setting organisation, the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code (the Aquatic Code) provides standards for the improvement of aquatic animal health worldwide. It also includes standards for the welfare of farmed fish and use of antimicrobial agents in aquatic animals. The sanitary measures in the Aquatic Code provide international standards on importing and exporting countries for early detection, reporting and control of pathogenic agents in aquatic animals (amphibians, crustaceans, fish and molluscs) and to prevent their spread via international trade in aquatic animals and their products, while avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers to trade. In addition, to provide a standardised approach to the diagnosis of the diseases listed in the Aquatic Code and to facilitate health certification for trade in aquatic animals and aquatic animal products, the OIE also developed the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals.

    OIE Aquatic Animal Code chapter 2.1 Import Risk Analysis provide recommendations and principles for conducting transparent, objective and defensible risk for importing aquatic animals and aquatic animal products. The components of risk analysis are 1) hazard identification, 2) risk assessment, 3) risk management and 4) risk communication. Additionally, the OIE international standards (Code and Manual), World Animal Health Information System, and OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Aquatic Animal Health Services also provide scientific evidence to the MCs on import risk analysis.
  • Conference paper

    Emergency preparedness and contingency plans to aquatic animal disease emergencies 

    MG Bondad-Reantaso - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Emergency preparedness is the ability to respond effectively and in a timely fashion to aquatic animal disease emergencies (e.g. disease outbreaks, mass mortalities). It is a key element of a National Strategy on Aquatic Animal Health and an important consideration of the Progressive Management Pathway for improving Aquaculture Biosecurity.

    The important principles, requirements and elements and components of emergency prepareness and contingency plans are briefly described. The emergency preparedness response system audit is also presented as contingency planning arrangements that can provide useful insights and guidance in improving response action to disease emergencies.

    The paper concludes that many important lessons and insights learned from dealing with disease epizootics in the early 2000 remains valid after more than two decades when the aquaculture sector continues to be plagued with emerging diseases. Past lessons and more recent experiences demonstrated the value of rapid response, reporting/notification by competent authorities, continuous development of knowledge base and capacities in diagnostics, epidemiology, risk analysis, advanced financial planning and the important roles of governments and producer sectors in co-managing disease outbreak events as they both remain the critical entities responsible for launching rapid response.

    Skills and knowledge need to be passed on to locals as they are in the frontline of any disease emergency. Share key lessons from experiences by state and non-state actors (producer and academic sectors and other important players in the value chain), the international players that launch emergency responses, disease investigations and field situation assessments as well as financial entities that support these actions need to be continued. However, we also need to do - a stock taking exercise to evaluate what worked, what did not work, what resources are needed and to understand what are the new drivers for aquatic animal disease emergence in order to move forward with the right and timely response actions to disease emergencies in aquaculture.

    Key questions remain: Are we prepared for the next outbreak/mortality event? What are the minimum preparedness and advance preparedness actions needed?
  • Conference paper

    Current status, issues, and gaps on aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems practiced by Cambodia 

    CD Khan, S Chhorn & S Thay - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    A few decades ago, Cambodia was rich in both freshwater and marine fisheries resources because of its favorable geographical area. However, the fisheries resources have depleted and were unable to totally fulfill the increasing fish demands of its people. This was caused by various factors including unfavorable climate changes, increase in population, improper agricultural production practices, and other human affecting activities. In this sense, aquaculture development in Cambodia becomes increasingly important in order to reduce the fishing pressure on its natural resources which are mainly for food security and economy of Cambodian people. Aside from this, aquatic animals in the country are vulnerable to infectious aquatic transboundary diseases as a result of insufficient and low transboundary diseases monitoring capacity. Neither the official list of aquatic transboundary diseases was created nor are the emergency preparedness and response systems for effective management of transboundary disease outbreaks in Cambodia has been well-established. Nonetheless, the government fisheries officers of both central and provincial levels have conducted fish health monitoring and undertake sample collection from fish farmers since 2016 in 10 targeted provinces as funded by the European Union s Programme. Regarding the capacity of the diagnostic laboratory, officers can perform level I and II but not for all species and diseases. Level III diagnoses cannot be effectively performed yet due to the lack of facilities, skills, and knowledge. The Marine Aquaculture Research and Development Center (MARDeC) is the only main laboratory for aquatic animal health diagnosis in the country. To minimize the spread of aquatic transboundary diseases in freshwater and seawater, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has been moving to initiate and establish policies regarding: (1) the registrations, licensing, and law enforcement; (2) the inspection of sites; (3) and the issuance of health certificate and quality seals. However, those national regulations and legislation regarding the movement of aquatic animal stocks are not yet practical or effective. Importantly, the Royal Government of Cambodia needs both technical and financial assistance. It requires an improvement, amendment, and enforcement of the regulations, laws and the standard operating procedures (SOPs). It requires laboratory capacity building and SOPs for responsible management to establish the aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems for effective management of transboundary disease outbreaks in Cambodia as well as Southeast Asia.
  • Conference paper

    Aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems in Singapore 

    D Chee & XH Teo - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Singapore s population-dense, urban environment presents a unique context for her increasingly important aquaculture industry. This paper provides an overview of Singapore s existing aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems, which have been constructed and refined by the Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) in view of past experience with detections of pathogens of warmwater fish. These systems have been developed to fulfil Singapore s obligations as an OIE member country and AVA s duty to safeguard food security, animal and public health. As a trade and export hub, it is critical for Singapore to have timely detection and reporting of diseases which can have an impact on trade. Singapore also needs to balance the needs and perceptions of the multiple stakeholders using the limited space and resources in our island state. Finally, this paper outlines the current issues and gaps of Singapore s existing aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems.
  • Conference paper

    Aquatic emergency preparedness and response system in Thailand 

    J Polchana - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    In Thailand, Department of Fisheries (DoF) is the competent authority for various aspects of aquatic animals including aquatic animal health. There are two principal legislation giving DoF power to apply for aquatic animal disease prevention and control measures in the country as well as import-export control; namely, Royal Ordinance on Fisheries and Animal Epidemic Act.

    DoF has two national reference laboratories for aquatic animal health, one is Aquatic Animal Health Research and Development Division (AAHRDD) for freshwater aquatic animal disease diagnosis and another is Songkhla Aquatic Animal Health Research Center (SAAHRC) for brackish water aquatic animal disease diagnosis. Both are ISO/IEC 17025 accredited laboratories. Besides, there are 19 regional laboratories of DoF located in different areas of the country. All of 21 laboratories are responsible for performing disease diagnosis service for fish farmers as well as for disease surveillance. There are a number of surveillance and control programs for aquatic animal diseases in Thailand. Passive surveillance: information can be collected from disease reporting and other sources such as scientific research, news, publications, social network, or rumor. Active surveillance: to provide assurance of disease status for trade purposes, DoF has setup nationally active targeted surveillance program for demonstrating a number of diseases free status of country or farm establishment in accordance with OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code.

    There are several farm standards in Thailand such as Good Aquaculture Practices for Hatchery of Disease Free Pacific White Shrimp, Good Aquaculture Practices for Marine Shrimp Farm, and Aquaculture Establishment for Export of Aquatic Animals. Each standard includes necessary biosecurity practices in order to prevent the introduction of pathogenic agent into or spread within or release from the farm. To control domestic movement of live aquatic animals, in normal situation, Aquatic Animal Movement Document should be gained when purchasing as it is beneficial to traceability. However if the disease free zone or disease zone is announced according to Animal Epidemic Act, all transportation of target aquatic animals or carcasses in or out of the defined zone is prohibited, unless a written permission is obtained.

    DoF had developed contingency plan for dealing with aquatic animal disease emergencies. In contingency plan, the Provincial Fisheries Officer in responsible area will act as Director of Emergency Aquatic Animal Disease Control Center while Inland Aquaculture Research and Development Center/Coastal Aquaculture Research and Development Center/AAHRDD/SAAHRC will act as disease investigator and laboratory testing. DoF maintains early warning system by supporting staff to attend the meeting and workshop where there is occurrence of new disease, regularly checking local/regional/international disease report database, communicate with competent authority of trade partner, and regularly reporting disease situation to regional and international system. For early detection system, DoF has not only supported expertise and facilities required for laboratories to diagnose different diseases but also conducted training courses for fish farmers, traders and DoF staffs to recognize signs of the listed disease and emerging disease and encouraged them for rapid reporting of the event to the nearest DoF agency for the purpose of immediate investigation. For early response system, when there is serious disease outbreak, aquatic animals in that epidemiological unit should be contained in safety area. Waste water also should not be released from that area without disinfection. Meanwhile, the DoF staffs should investigate the outbreak urgently in order to define disease zone and find out what factors associated with the outbreak so that the disease management or control measure can be applied properly.
  • Conference paper

    Way forward 

    MG Bondad-Reantaso - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The overall objective of this technical consultation is to bring together the representatives of ASEAN Member States and technical experts to examine the status of aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems currently being practiced in the region in order to identify gaps and other initiatives for regional cooperation. In the general sense, the RTC is successful in achieving the general objective.

    As for the specific objectives, (a) to assess existing laws, legislations and standard operating procedures (SOPs), among others had been partially achieved. This is because the consultation didn t assess but was only informed (through the reports of country representatives) of the current situation in ASEAN member countries. The way forward of this is to complete the EPRS audit questionnaire as basis of the more systematic assessment. The second objective is (b) to assess the need for a regional aquatic EPRS in the ASEAN, the participant voted in the affirmative. The way forward of this is to create the ASEAN guidelines including the mechanics. The third objective is to (c) enhance cooperation among Member States, regional/international organizations and other relevant stakeholders on initiatives that support aquatic EPRS for effective management of aquatic animal disease outbreaks. This objective has been achieved. The way forward for this is to get the same people for a planned and proposed consultation II for continuity and for emphasis on more private sector and academe representation.
  • Conference paper

    Risk analysis in aquaculture 

    MG Bondad-Reantaso - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The information presented in this paper were taken from several key FAO documents. The objective is to continuously raise awareness about the concept of risk analysis and its application to the aquaculture sector.

    The paper provides information in response to several key risk questions, e.g.: (1) what is risk versus hazard, (2) what is risk analysis, (3) who uses risk analysis, (4) why do countries need to be able to use risk analysis? An overview of the risks in aquaculture is also provided in terms of the process and approaches; and the different risk sectors in aquaculture.

    The paper concludes with some key points and challenges. Risk analysis is a decisionmaking tool that contributes to protecting national health and welfare. It can also contribute to sustainable aquaculture and the success of individual aquaculture businesses and operations. Risk analysis does not stand alone - it supports and is supported by other components of a National Strategy on Aquatic Animal Health. A basic strength of the risk analysis process is its flexibility - it is adaptable to almost any sector/system where risk and uncertainty occur.

    Countries will often be confronted with a lack of scientific information, both quality and quantity, to support the risk analysis process. Nevertheless, governments must often act under these uncertainties as well as make decisions in the face of a great deal of complexity, significant variability, and multiple management goals.
  • Conference paper

    Components and implementation strategies for effective hazard monitoring and early warning 

    C Chiesa, V Leat & J Bean - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Effective monitoring of hazardous incidents for timely dissemination of notifications and warnings involves a thoughtful mixture and application of information, technology and intuitional processes. It starts with the identification of the right data - data to be used in decision making processes - from the right sources - authoritative sources that can be trusted and relied upon. Processes must then be developed to routinely and swiftly acquire, process, and ingest these data into an early warning system (EWS). Decision criteria - sometime referred to as business rules - must be established to transform these data into actionable information, including for the dissemination of warning messages. Finally, the warning messages must be quickly and securely transmitted to the intended recipients, often via redundant mechanisms to insure receipt. Of course, warning messages themselves, even if timely, accurate, and actionable, are not sufficient without an overall context in which to assess them as well as pre-established processes for taking actions, sometimes referred to as Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). However, even the best SOPs will be ineffective if their users are not adequately skilled and knowledgeable. This generally means that a training and exercise program must be a key component of any successful monitoring and warning system. These elements of effective monitoring - and strategies for their implementation - are described and illustrated via the Pacific Disaster Center s DisasterAWARE all-hazards monitoring, early warning and decision support system.
  • Conference paper

    Current status, issues and gaps of aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems practiced in Brunei Darussalam 

    W Tamat, DSNPHA Halim & EFB Pakar - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Importation of live fish to Brunei Darussalam have incurred a major biosecurity risk to the aquaculture industry. Preventing disease incursions through quarantine, legislation and education is currently the most cost-effective management approach in Brunei. Once an incursion has occurred, national emergency response system arrangements are implemented to facilitate immediate response actions for containment and eradication. Brunei Darussalam has a list of legislation and policies to aid in the immediate response of disease outbreak. However, fisheries staff lack basic emergency response training and there are few skilled staff and resources available. Simulation exercise to review the effectiveness of the AEPR system needs to be addressed.
  • Conference paper

    Emergency response to emerging diseases: TiLV in tilapia 

    S Senapin - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a novel RNA virus resembling Orthomyxovirus. It has been recently re-classified to Tilapia tilapinevirus species, under Tilapinevirus genus, Amnoonviridae family (ICTV, 2018). Since the first discovery in Israel in 2014, so far TiLV has been reported from 14 countries in three continents (Asia, Africa, and South America). Thailand is one of the affected countries that reported emergence of this virus in 2017. Initially, we employed nested RT-PCR primer sequences previously published for TiLV diagnosis. However, the resulting amplification of nonspecific fish genes led us to modify the nested RT-PCR protocols into a semi-nested RT-PCR by omitting a non-specific primer to avoid false positive results. Subsequently, our molecular work together with histopathology and sequence analysis confirmed the presence of TiLV infection in Thailand. Prior to the publication of our manuscript, we informed the Thai Department of Fisheries of our discovery of TiLV in Thailand. Our publication was preceded by a brief article at the website of the Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific in which we warned of the spread of TiLV and offered free use of a newly improved, semi-nested RT-PCR method and positive control plasmid for detection of TiLV. To date, we have provided positive controls in response to 44 requests from 24 countries who have expressed their appreciation for our attempt to help in emergent controlling the spread of this fish pathogen. Our current study focuses on genetic diversity of TiLV and development of detection method that covers all genetic variants.
  • Conference paper

    Country status of aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems for effective management of aquatic animal disease outbreaks in Myanmar 

    KN Oo & YY Cho - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Myanmar is one of the OIE members and the Department of Fisheries (DoF) is highly concerned with transboundary aquatic animal pathogens. Therefore, the Aquatic Animal Health & Disease Control Section has already been formed not only for field diagnostic surveys but also for border control especially at international airport and border trade areas by checking and counter checking export and import of aquatic animals and products. At the moment, the DoF is stressing an issue of some transboundary diseases for finfish such as Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Argulus sp., Trichodena sp., Streptococcus sp., Aeromonas sp., and for crustacean are MrNV/XSV and WSSV. In addition, the DoF is facing challenges with parasitic disease and bacterial disease problems due to poor water quality management at culturing fish ponds. For the prevention and control of fish diseases within the country, the DoF is issuing Health Certificates by physical and microbiological examination of fishes and fisheries products. At the same time, Quarterly report on fish disease has being regularly submitted to NACA, OIE since 1998 until now. Although the DoF has no specific law and legislation on the control of quarantine pest and disease of aquatic animal, a good aquaculture practice has been implemented and code of conduct responsible for aquaculture is being followed in the country. The aquatic health management is a challenging issue in aquaculture development. Myanmar is still needing technical assistance to improve quarantine system especially for importation and exportation of live aquatic animals. Moreover, monitoring and surveillance programs with harmonized aquatic emergency preparedness and response system are required to boost up not only for Myanmar but also for effective management of transboundary disease outbreaks in Southeast Asia.

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