Mud crab hatchery and grow-out status in the Philippines
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Interest in mud crab aquaculture is increasing throughout the Philippines because of its demand both in local and export markets. Mud crab culture started as low-density polyculture with fish or shrimp using wild crab juveniles and developed to monoculture in ponds and cages. Recently, an integrated mangrove-crab culture system has been practiced. Mud crab species commonly cultured are Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica, and S. olivacea. The yearly increase in production from 1996 to 2000 (Table 1) may indicate a corresponding increase in the seed collection activity due to greater demand of seeds for stocking. According to many gatherers in the country, there has been a declining volume of all size-classes, from juveniles to adult crabs, gathered from the wild over the last decade. Hence, the development of a commercially viable hatchery technology can play an important role in promoting sustainable crab aquaculture and fisheries management.
Quinitio, E. T. (2004). Mud crab hatchery and grow-out status in the Philippines. In G. Allan & D. Fielder (Eds.), Mud crab aquaculture in Australia and Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the ACIAR Crab Aquaculture Scoping Study and Workshop 28–29 April 2003, Joondooburri Conference Centre, Bribie Island (pp. 53-56). Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
PublisherAustralian Centre for International Agricultural Research
SeriesACIAR Working Paper;No. 54
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Conference paperET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa, JJ Huervana & MR Burlas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterWidespread interest in mud crab species is increasing because these are highly prized both in domestic and export markets. Among the three mud crab species commonly found in the Philippines, Scylla serrata, S. olivacea, and S. tranquebarica, S. serrata is preferred by farmers because it is larger and less aggressive than the other species. Likewise, S. serrata is the most widely distributed species in the Indo-west Pacific region. Hatchery-produced seedstock are presently used by some crab farmers in their grow-out operations. In the hatchery phase, feeding mud crab larvae with shrimp formulated diets and natural food was found to reduce the occurrence of molt death syndrome, one of the major problems in seed production. Larvae given 25% formulated diet (FD) + 75% natural food (NF; rotifers and Artemia) and 50% FD + 50% NF showed better performance than those larvae fed 100% FD, 100% NF and 75% FD + 25% NF indicating that usage of natural food, especially the expensive Artemia, can be reduced. Since the early crab instar (C) produced in the hatchery need to be grown further before stocking in grow-out ponds, two phases of nursery culture have been developed. C1-2 are grown to 1.5-2.0 cm carapace width (CW) size in the first phase and further grown to 3.0-4.0 cm CW in the second phase. Nursery rearing is done in net cages installed in ponds for easy retrieval. A combination of mussel or trash fish and formulated diet is used as feed. Domestication of the mud crab S. serrata as a prerequisite to selective breeding has been done at SEAFDEC/AQD. Likewise, defining criteria for the determination of quality of newly hatched zoeae for stocking in the hatchery was initiated. Newly hatched zoeae were subjected to starvation and stress test using formalin. Starvation failed to elicit responses that were significantly different between the good and poor quality larvae hence it is not suitable for larval quality evaluation. Based on three-year data, the formalin stress test gave mean cumulative mortalities of 2.38±0.32, 8.24±0.88, 20±1.58 in good quality larvae, and 43.74±2.39 while 22.93±4.19, 63.68±7.17, 84.29±3.88 and 97.65±1.06 for poor quality larvae at 0 (control), 20, 30 and 40 ppm formalin, respectively. As formalin level increased, cumulative larval mortality also increased regardless of the quality of the larvae. Formalin stress test proved to be a reliable method to determine whether a batch of newly hatched zoeae was of good or poor quality.
BookCR Lavilla-Pitogo & LD de la Peña - 2004 - Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture production has suffered many set-backs due to the occurrence of diseases. Many of the diseases are caused by infectious organisms that are difficult to detect and need sophisticated instruments for diagnosis, but most disease occurrence and mortality in farmed aquatic animals are related to poor rearing water quality. It is, therefore, important for technicians and farmers to recognize the relationship between the animals they culture and the aquatic environment. The Government of Japan, through the Regional Fish Disease Project, funded research on diseases affecting mud crabs in order to come up with sound prevention and control methods. This book is a collection of observations gathered from various research and commercial culture activities, and gives emphasis on disease recognition using simple techniques and gross observations of affected crabs. However, since many of the diseases are caused by microorganisms, microscopy is an important technique for their diagnosis. The authors of the book encourage active cooperation between farmers and diagnostic laboratories for disease identification, prevention, and control in order to build up more information to increase production. The Regional Fish Disease Project supports sustainable mud crab production and hopes that farmers and other users of this book will attain their production goals.
Seasonal abundance, distribution and recruitment of mud crabs (Scylla spp.) in replanted mangroves ME Walton, L Le Vay, JH Lebata, J Binas & JH Primavera -
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 2006 - ElsevierThe abundance and distribution of mud crabs were studied in a replanted mangrove forest in Buswang, Aklan, Philippines. Two fishing gears, lift nets and bamboo traps, were used to monitor relative abundance of Scylla spp. populations from March 2002 to December 2003 inside the mangrove forest. A third gear, a stakenet set across a creek, was used to monitor crabs migrating out of the mangroves during the ebb tide. Scylla olivacea formed 99.3% and 70.3% of the catch in the mangrove and the stakenet, respectively. The percentage of Scylla tranquebarica increased from <1% in the mangrove catches to 29% in the stakenet. Scylla serrata was present at very low levels in both catches. The lack of modal progression in the size–frequency plots and the year-round catch rate of gravid females suggested that recruitment was constant throughout the year. Even though relative abundance decreased over the study period indicating that the stock is being over-exploited, mud crab production is more than equivalent to that of most natural mangroves.