Prospects of host-associated microorganisms in fish and penaeids as probiotics with immunomodulatory functions
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Aquatic animals harbor a great number of microorganisms with interesting biological and biochemical diversity. Besides serving as the natural defense system of the host, the utilization potential of this microbial association has been identified particularly as reservoirs of candidate probiotics. Host-derived probiotics have gained popularity in recent years as they offer an alternative source of beneficial microbes to the industry that is customarily dependent on the use of terrestrial microorganisms. At present, there is an overwhelming number of candidate probiotics in aquaculture but their large-scale application is restricted by bio-technological concerns and fragmentary documented probiotic actions. This paper presents the current understanding on the use of probiotics as a sustainable alternative that promotes health and welfare in fish and penaeids. In particular, this paper discusses the relevance of host microbiota and its potential as a source of candidate probiotics. It also revisits the interaction between probiotics and host immunity to provide the foundation of the immunomodulatory functions of host-derived probiotics. Several studies demonstrating the immunomodulatory capabilities of host-derived candidate probiotics are given to establish the current knowledge and provide avenues for future research and development in this thematic area of probiotics research in aquaculture.
CitationLazado, C. C., Caipang, C. M. A., & Estante, E. G. (2015). Prospects of host-associated microorganisms in fish and penaeids as probiotics with immunomodulatory functions.
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ArticleRD Fernandez, EA Tendencia, EM Leaño & MN Duray -
Fish Pathology, 1996 - Japanese Society of Fish PathologyAerobic bacterial flora of eggs and larvae of milkfish, Chanos chanos, was investigated. Microflora in the incubating water of egg, rearing water of larvae, water source, and larval food was also analyzed. Aerobic bacterial flora of milkfish eggs was largely influenced by the bacterial flora in the incubating water. Both in eggs and in the incubating water Pseudomonas species were the dominant bacteria. During milkfish larval rearing, intestinal aerobic bacterial flora was examined at days 1, 3, 7, 10, 15, 18, and 21. Bacterial number in the larvae and rearing water significantly increased during the culture period up to day 18 but dropped significant at day 21. Pseudomonas species were detected from yolk-sac larvae (day 1) as the dominant bacteria, similarly to the normal flora in the rearing water. However, intestinal bacteria were predominated with Vibrio species when the yolk-sac was absorbed on day 3. Larval rearing water, water source, and larval food contained predominantly Pseudomonas species.
ArticleAAA Hamid, S Hamdan, RV Pakingking Jr. & F Huyop -
Biotechnology, 2010 - Asian Network for Scientific InformationPseudomonas sp. strain S3 was isolated from Paddy (rice) field agricultural area. This organism, which can utilize a halogenated compound of D,L-2-Chloropropionic acid as sole carbon and energy source, catalyses the hydrolytic dehalogenation of both D- and L- isomers of 2-Chloropropionic acid. Identification of Pseudomonas sp. S3 is still ambiguous due to the lack of basic studies, especially their molecular genetic information. In this study, the amplified 16S rRNA gene sequence of Pseudomonas sp. S3 (Accession No. FJ968758) was compared to other nine selected gene sequences from the same group of Pseudomonas sp. and/or dehalogenase producing bacteria using in silico method. Their phylogenetic relationships were then determined. The results were analysed using MEGA4 software to ascertain its evolutionary distance by reconstructing a phylogenetic tree of these organisms. The evolutionary history and bootstrap consensus tree were inferred using the Neighbour-Joining method from 500 replicates. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths (next to the branches) in the same units as those of the evolutionary distances used to infer the phylogenetic tree. The evolutionary distances were computed using the p-distance method and were in the units of the number of base substitutions per site. Based on this analysis, Pseudomonas sp. S3 16S rRNA gene was closely related to the Pseudomonas chlororaphis with genetic distance 0.170 base substitutions per site. S3 gene was also compared among known dehalogenase producing bacteria 16S rRNA genes. Results suggested that S3 was closely related to the Pseudomonas sp. R1 with a genetic distance 0.040 base substitutions per site. From present study, evolutionary relationships of 16S rRNA gene of Pseudomonas sp. S3 were elegantly illustrated by phylograms, comparable to a pedigree showing which microorganisms are most closely related.
Biodegradition of monochloroacetic acid by a presumptive Pseudomonas sp. strain R1 bacterium isolated from Malaysian paddy (rice) field SN Ismail, AM Taha, NH Jing, RA Wahab, AA Hamid, RV Pakingking Jr. & F Huyop -
Biotechnology, 2008 - Asian Network for Scientific InformationA bacterial strain tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. R1 was isolated from a paddy (rice) field that could degrade monochloroacetic acid (MCA) for concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 mM. Quantitative agreement between the amount of MCA introduced and chloride released was also found. MCA dehalogenase activity in this strain was found to be inducible. Cell-free extracts displayed dehalogenating activity with specific halogenated organic compound with no activity on dichloropropionic acid or monochloropropionic acid. The estimated Km values for MCA was 0.14 mM. The optimal pH range for MCA dehalogenase activity (between pH 6.5 and 8.0), whereas the thermal stability profile stable up to 50 °C. The results of our current study demonstrated the potential use of Pseudomonas sp. R1 as suitable biological agent for biodegradation of MCA in contaminated agricultural area.