Leaf meals as protein sources in diets for milkfish Chanos chanos (Forsskal)
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The protencial of partial replacement of fish meal protein with protein indigenous leaf meals in practical diets for milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal) was studied. Five isocaloric (375 kcal/100 g diet), isonitrogenous (40% protein), and isolipidic (10%) diets were formulated to contain leaf meals from either swamp cabbage (kangkong, Ipomea reptans), sweet potato (kamote, Ipomea batatas), ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), and cassava (kamorng kahoy, Manihot esculenta), or a combination of swamp cabbage, sweet potato and cassava. The control diet contained fish meal and soybean meal as sources of protein while thw test diets contained fish meal, soybean meal, and leaf meals erplacing 15% of the fish meal protein. The protein sources were incorporated in levels that gives optimal essential amino acid patterns to the diets. Each diet was fed to reiplcate groups of fish (about 0.3 g) maintained at 20 ppt salinity and 29oC in a recirculating system for twelve weeks. Growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), and survival of fish fed the diet contaning cassava leaf meal showed the best groth FCR, PER and survival. the data sugest that these leaf meals can be used to partially replace fish meal in a diet for juvenile milkfish if the requirments for essential amino acids are met.
Borlongan, I.G., & Coloso, R. M. (1994). Leaf meals as protein sources in diets for milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal). In De Silva, S.S. (Ed.), Fish Nutrition Research in Asia. Proceedings of the Fifth Asian Fish Nutrition Workshop, January 1993, Udorn Thani, Thailand (pp. 63-67). Manila, Philippines, Asian Fisheries Society.
PublisherAsian Fisheries Society
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Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
BookM Ahmed, GA Magnayon-Umali, RA Valmonte-Santos, J Toledo, N Lopez & F Torres Jr. - 2001 - ICLARM - The World Fish Center
Series: ICLARM Technical Report; 58Bangus or milkfish is the national fish of Philippine. Bangus culture is traditionally based on fry collected from the wild. Due to growing demand for fry the bangus industry. The Philippines Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), the Philippine Council of Aquatic and Marine Research and Development (PCAMRD), the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre (SEFDEC) and ICLARM embarked of the conditions prevailing in the milkfish fry sector, project workshop was held in 1999. The present report is the outcome of workshop. Report highlights on the issues milkfish production, fry production in hatcheries, fry gathering activities, marketing issues, management of fry gathering grounds and its marketing and the related policy issues.