Urease activity in soybean meal: effect on its nutritional quality and on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon juveniles.
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Based on the results of a survey conducted on the urease activity (UA) in commercial shrimp feed containing soybean meal (SBM) (0.00-29. 70 ppm UA), a study was carried out to determine the effects of different heat treatments on the UA, and on the nutritional quality of SBM. The effect of these heat treated SBMs when incorporated into shrimp diet on the growth and survival of Penaeus monodon juveniles was likewise tested. Various levels of UA in SBM were obtained with different heat treatments. Six practical diets were formulated and contained 0.00 (SBM heated at !20°C for 20 min); 0.50 (SBM heated at 60°C for 160 min); 4.0 (SBM heated at 60°C for 80 min); 8.0 (SBM heated at 60°C for 40 min); 11.0 (SBM heated at 60°C for 20 min) and 22.0 ppm UA (without heating). These diets were fed to P. monodon (average weight = 4.24±0.10 g) juveniles for a period of 60 days. Results showed that protein quality in terms of amino acid content of SBM was not significantly affected by the different heat treatments. Weight gains of shrimps fed diets with 8.0, 11.0, 25.0 ppm UA were significantly lower than those fed other diets. Survival of shrimps was lowest with diets containing unheated SBM, but this was not significalltly different from those heated at 60°C. Heat treatment of SBM at 120°C is adequate to be an effective ingredient in shrimp diets.
Bautista-Teruel, M. N., & Subosa, P. F. (1998). Urease activity in soybean meal: effect on its nutritional quality and on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon juveniles. In M. Beveridge, R. Fuchs, J. Furberg, N. Kautsky, A. Reilly, & P. Sorgeloos (Eds.), Aquaculture Research and Sustainable Development in Inland and Coastal Regions in South-East Asia, Proceedings of an IFS/EU Workshop, Can Tho, Vietnam, 18-22 March 1996 (pp. 168–176). Stockholm, Sweden: International Foundation for Science.
PublisherInternational Foundation for Science
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Book chapterET Marasigan, SL Miag-ao & AE Serrano - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of AgricultureTwo diets were formulated to include 8–14% soybean meal and 9–18% rice bran, 34–40% fish meal, 4–5% mussel meal, and 7–8% Acetes shrimp meal, and 11–13% cod liver oil. Soy bean meal and rice bran were included at 4:1 ratio together to replace 12.5% and 25% of the animal protein sources in the two diets. The two diets were prepared in dry D form and moist M form. The four test diets, D12.5, M12.5, D25, and M25 diets had 40–42% protein and 4,000 kcal/g gross energy. The control diet used was a dry diet with 44% crude protein and 4,260 kcal/g, made with 30% Peruvian fish meal, 8% squid meal, 22% Acetes shrimp meal, 8% cod liver oil, 8% soybean oil, but no plant protein sources. The five diets were fed to juvenile grouper (mean weights ranging from 1.63 ± 0.47 to 2.41 ± 0.91 g) in indoor 400 L concrete tanks (10 fish per tank). After 10 weeks, growth, feed intake, feed conversion ratios (1.2–2.2), and survival (60–80%) of juvenile grouper were not significantly different between the test diets and the control. The carcass composition of the harvested grouper was not significantly different among diets. Protein utilization was best among the fish fed the test diet D12.5. This study showed that soybean meal and rice bran at 4:1 ratio can be included in formulated diets for grouper to replace 12.5% to 25% of the animal protein sources. However, the results for the test diets may also have been due to other factors - the high fish meal content, inclusion of mussel meal, and increase in cod liver oil.
Partial replacement of fishmeal by defatted soybean meal in formulated diets for the mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal 1775) This study was conducted to evaluate the effect on growth and feed efficiencies of the mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) when dietary fishmeal is partially replaced by defatted soybean meal (DSM). In the preliminary experiment, snapper (mean weight±SD, 58.22±5.28 g) were fed in triplicate with different dietary amounts of DSM (7.8–42.2%) that were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric. After 14 weeks, survival, growth and feed efficiencies, and hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not differ. Based on these results, a feeding trial was done using a positive control diet that contained 64% fishmeal, while the other four diets had DSM levels of 12%, 24%, 36%, and 48% that replaced fishmeal protein at 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% respectively. All diets were formulated to have about the same protein level (50%), protein to energy ratio (P/E of 25-mg protein kJ−1), and dietary energy (19.8 MJ kg−1). These were fed to triplicate groups of snapper (mean total weight tank−1±SD, 73.19±1.2 g) at 15 fish (average weight, 4.88 g) per 1.5-t tank for 19 weeks. Growth (final average weight and specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival, and HSI were not significantly different (P>0.05) while protein efficiency ratios or PERs were similar in treatments with DSM. Among snapper fed DSM, haematocrit value was significantly lower in fish fed 48% DSM and not different with fish fed 36% DSM. Whole-body crude fat of snapper fed 48% DSM was lowest while the crude protein and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) levels were highest. Histopathological analysis showed that lipid vacuoles in livers of snapper were reduced in size as dietary DSM increased. There was slight lipid deposition in the liver of snapper at 36% DSM while at 48% DSM it was excessive and hepatocytes were necrotic. There were no differences in the histology of snapper intestine. Under the experimental condition of this study, DSM can be used in snapper diets at 24% (replacing 25% of fishmeal protein) based on growth, survival and feed efficiencies, and histology of liver and intestine. For a lesser diet cost, an inclusion level higher than 24% DSM is possible with a bioavailable phosphorus supplement.
Potential use of the sea lettuce Ulva lactuca replacing soybean meal in the diet of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon juvenile AE Serrano Jr., RB Santizo & BLM Tumbokon -
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation and Legislation, 2015 - BiofluxTo evaluate the biological value of incorporating the sea lettuce Ulva lactuca meal in the diet of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), 3 diets were fed to groups of shrimps containing two levels (15% and 30% replacement of soybean meal) of the sea lettuce for 90 days. Biological parameters were determined either periodically or at the termination of the experiment. Specific growth rate (SGR) of shrimp fed the control diet and those fed with the diet containing 15% replacement were not significantly different from each other while that of shrimp fed 30% soybean replacement was slightly but significantly inferior. All other parameters such as survival rate, feed intake, food conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio protein and lipid deposited and body composition were all statistically similar between the experimental groups of shrimp. Thus, the 30% replacement level or 10.5% inclusion level could be used in the diet of the shrimp P. monodon. When performances were compared with the best result in incorporating U. lactuca protein concentrate from a previous study and that in the present study (both were 30% replacement or 10.5 inclusion level), they were statistically similar. Thus, the raw U. lactuca meal is recommended because it did not require additional processing to produce the concentrated seaweed.