Marine-fish mangrove aquaculture
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Aquaculture has often been blamed by environmental lobby groups as one of the main causes of mangrove destruction. In the Philippines, large areas of mangroves were converted through the years into fish and shrimp ponds. There are aquaculture practices that can be done without destroying the existing mangroves. Mangrove-friendly aquaculture practices of different marine species such as extensive pond culture, culture of marine fish in a modified pond/pen system in mangrove, and cage culture of marine fish near mangrove areas are environment-friendly. These practices are described in this paper.
In: Tadokoro, Y., Sulit, V.T., Abastillas, R.B. Technologies in Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture. Final Report of and Papers Presented to the On-Site Training on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture, 19-30 April 1999. Hai Phong City, Socialists Republic of Vietnam. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department. pp. 204-213
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
- Conference Proceedings 
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BookDD Baliao, MA delos Santos, NM Franco & NRS Jamon - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 29The manual describes the culture of groupers (Epinephelus) in floating cages, providing a farming option for grouper growers and also a production alternative to the farmed species being done today, such as shrimp, milkfish and tilapia. The following aspects are covered: species identification for commercially cultured groupers; source of stock; net cage specifications; anchor; hides and shelters; nursery net cage operation; production cages; harvesting; post-harvest; profitability analysis of grouper cage culture; and, cost and return of growing grouper in cages.
BookML Cuvin-Aralar, EV Aralar & AG Lazartigue - 2011 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 50An extension manual describing biology, site requirement, grow-out operations, health management, harvest, post harvest handling and processing, and economic analysis.
Spawning of tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus in sea cages and onshore tanks in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India MA Rimmer, YC Thampisamraj, P Jayagopal, D Thineshsanthar, PN Damodar & JD Toledo -
Aquaculture, 2013 - ElsevierThe broodstock of two grouper species, tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus, were maintained in sea cages near Rutland Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, and their spawning performance was monitored from June 2007 to December 2010. E. fuscoguttatus generally spawned monthly in association with the new moon phase, for 8–9 months each year. Each year, they underwent a 3- to 4-month refractory period between February and June then recommenced spawning in May–July. P. areolatus showed a different spawning pattern to E. fuscoguttatus, spawning for less than 6 months each year, also in association with the new moon, and demonstrating much longer refractory periods (up to 15 months) than E. fuscoguttatus. Analysis of temperature data from the sea cage site showed that water temperature was significantly lower during spawning events than during comparable non-spawning periods. We postulate that one factor inhibiting spawning is higher water temperatures exceeding the upper thermal inhibitory limit for both grouper species during the hotter months of the year. Selected broodstock fish of both species were also maintained in onshore tanks fitted with recirculating filtration systems, but the spawning performance of both grouper species in the onshore tanks was inferior to broodstock held in the sea cages. E. fuscoguttatus maintained in onshore tanks spawned during only 5 months of the 42-month study period, whereas E. fuscoguttatus held in the sea cages spawned during 29 months over the same time frame. P. areolatus held in onshore tanks over the same period did not spawn, whereas P. areolatus held in sea cages spawned during 16 months out of the 42-month study period.