Mangroves and community aquaculture
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Describes the efforts of AQD to raise mudcrab in pens in mangrove areas in Palawan and Aklan with the participation of local communities.
SEAFDEC/AQD. (2000). Mangroves and community aquaculture. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/616
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Mangrove; Mangrove swamps; Botanical resources; Ecology; Utilization; Resource management; Resource conservation; Brackishwater environment; Check lists; Vernacular names; Philippines; Acanthus ilicifolius; River mangrove; Aegiceras corniculatum; Avicennia alba; White mangrove; Avicennia marina; Avicennia officinalis; Avicennia rumphiana; Bruguiera cylindrica; Bruguiera sexangula; Camptostemon philippinense; Ceriops decandra; Yellow mangrove; Ceriops tagal; Milky mangrove; Excoecaria agallocha; Looking-glass mangrove; Heritiera littoralis; Lumnitzera racemosa; Nypa fruticans; Tall-stilted mangrove; Rhizophora apiculata; Rhizophora mucronata; Red mangrove; Rhizophora stylosa; Pornupan mangrove; Sonneratia alba; Cannonball mangrove; Xylocarpus granatum; Xylocarpus mekongensis
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Conference paperET Quinitio, EB Vista, RC Vista & MJH Lebata-Ramos - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis study assessed the mangrove community structure, relative seasonal abundance of all size classes of crabs (catch per unit effort or CPUE) and percent composition of the catch in two collection grounds in Pambujan and Rosario, Northern Samar using cylindrical bamboo traps and lift nets. Mangroves in Pambujan was dominated by Avicennia marina and A. alba. The initial total count of mangrove trees (67 stems ha-1) was slightly higher compared with the final count (61 stems ha-1). On the other hand, mangroves in Rosario was dominated by Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa. The total count of mangrove trees was higher in the initial (108 stems ha-1) compared with the final (46 stems ha-1). However, saplings and seedlings increased in both sites after 18 months. Mean CPUE ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 crabs using cylindrical bamboo traps in the monthly spring tide sampling for 19 months in Pambujan. High mean CPUE was recorded in February and August 2008. Mean CPUE ranged from 0.04 to 0.41 crabs using lift nets in the monthly spring tide sampling. The highest mean CPUE was noted in August. The initial and final CPUE were comparable. In Rosario, mean CPUE ranged from 0.3 to 1.78 crabs monthly caught in cylindrical bamboo traps and from 0.04 to 0.77 crabs in lift nets. In general, the number of crabs caught in both traps was higher in Rosario than in Pambujan. Mud crab ranged from 2.02-72.2% of the monthly total catch in lift nets in Pambujan. Other species of crabs ranging from 27.78 to 86.36% were the dominant catch in several months. In Rosario, mud crab ranged from 12.5 to 82.35% of the monthly total catch. The catch composition of the cylindrical bamboo traps was more varied compared with lift nets in both sites. The decrease in the population of mud crabs may also be associated with the decrease in mangrove trees. With the continuous cutting of trees and regular extraction of all sizes of mud crabs, the industry may no longer become sustainable. This paper is the first to be done on the assessment of the mud crab population in Northern Samar and the information gathered can be used as basis for the development and improvement of the existing fisheries legislation for the conservation and management of the remaining wild resources.
Distribution pattern of shrimps and fish among Avicennia and Rhizophora microhabitats in the Pagbilao mangroves, Philippines P Rönnbäck, M Troell, N Kautsky & JH Primavera -
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 1999 - ElsevierFor sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems, there is a pressing need to increase our knowledge of fish and invertebrates associated with this system. This study sampled microhabitats (89–258 m2) inside the mangrove forest at Pagbilao, the Philippines, on two consecutive spring tides using stake nets. Distribution patterns of shrimps and fish were compared among four microhabitats that differed in dominant mangrove species (Avicennia marina, A. officinalis or Rhizophora apiculata), structural complexity of the root system, and proximity to open water habitat. A 5 to 6-year-old replanted Rhizophora microhabitat was also sampled to study faunal recolonization following replantation. The mean (±SE) density of the shrimp community was 1·5±0·2 shrimps m−2, dominated by Palaemonidae, followed by Acetes sp., Penaeus merguiensis and Metapenaeus ensis . The highest shrimp density was observed in the replanted Rhizophora habitat, which also had the highest structural complexity. The mean (±SE) density and biomass of the fish community was 5·1±2·0 fish m−2and 10·4±3·3 g m−2, respectively, dominated by Ambassis kopsi, A. urotaenia and Atherinomorus balabacensis. The fish community preferred the pneumatophore (Avicennia) microhabitats to the prop root (Rhizophora) habitats. Highest fish abundance and biomass were observed in the most inland habitat, which also lacked larger (total length >100 mm) carnivorous fish. The results demonstrate the extensive use of intertidal mangrove forests by vagile fauna, as well as the successful recolonization by shrimps and fish of replanted Rhizophora habitat. The role of mangroves as predation refuges, based on the distribution pattern of shrimps and fish, is discussed. Sampling strategies in mangrove intertidal habitat are also outlined.
ArticleFrom half a million hectares at the turn of the century, Philippine mangroves have declined to only 120,000 ha while fish/shrimp culture ponds have increased to 232,000 ha. Mangrove replanting programs have thus been popular, from community initiatives (1930s-1950s) to government-sponsored projects (1970s) to large-scale international development assistance programs (1980s to present). Planting costs escalated from less than US$100 to over $500/ha, with half of the latter amount allocated to administration, supervision and project management. Despite heavy funds for massive rehabilitation of mangrove forests over the last two decades, the long-term survival rates of mangroves are generally low at 10-20%. Poor survival can be mainly traced to two factors: inappropriate species and sites selection. The favored but unsuitable Rhizophora are planted in sandy substrates of exposed coastlines instead of the natural colonizers Avicennia and Sonneratia. More significantly, planting sites are generally in the lower intertidal to subtidal zones where mangroves do not thrive rather than the optimal middle to upper intertidal levels, for a simple reason. Such ideal sites have long been converted to brackishwater fishponds whereas the former are open access areas with no ownership problems. The issue of pond ownership may be complex and difficult, but such should not outweigh ecological requirements: mangroves should be planted where fishponds are, not on seagrass beds and tidal flats where they never existed. This paper reviews eight mangrove initiatives in the Philippines and evaluates the biophysical and institutional factors behind success or failure. The authors recommend specific protocols (among them pushing for a 4:1 mangrove to pond ratio recommended for a healthy ecosystem) and wider policy directions to make mangrove rehabilitation in the country more effective.